Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume 2017, Article ID 4798963, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4798963
Research Article

A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil

Institute of Nutritional Physiology and Animal Nutrition, Justus Liebig University, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 29-32, 35392 Giessen, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Edgar Weigand; ed.nesseig-inu.gnurheanre@dnagiew.ragde

Received 17 October 2016; Revised 8 March 2017; Accepted 19 March 2017; Published 29 March 2017

Academic Editor: H. K. Biesalski

Copyright © 2017 Edgar Weigand and Jennifer Egenolf. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. L. Vallee and K. H. Falchuk, “The biochemical basis of zinc physiology,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 79–118, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. S. MacDonald, “The role of zinc in growth and cell proliferation,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 130, no. 5, pp. 1500S–1508S, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. T. Walsh, H. H. Sandstead, A. S. Prasad, P. M. Newberne, and P. J. Fraker, “Zinc: health effects and research priorities for the 1990s,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 5–46, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. H. Brown, J. M. Peerson, J. Rivera, and L. H. Allen, “Effect of supplemental zinc on the growth and serum zinc concentrations of prepubertal children: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 75, no. 6, pp. 1062–1071, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. Ranasinghe, W. S. Wathurapatha, M. H. Ishara et al., “Effects of zinc supplementation on serum lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Nutrition & Metabolism, vol. 12, no. 1, article 26, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. J. Wood, “Assessment of marginal zinc status in humans,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 130, no. 5, pp. 1350S–1354S, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. J. H. Jones, B. R. Toy, and M. C. Cha, “Differential fatty acid accretion in heart, liver and adipose tissues of rats fed beef tallow, fish oil, olive oil and safflower oils at three levels of energy intake,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 125, no. 5, pp. 1175–1182, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. H. Y. Park, C. J. Grandjean, D. L. Antonson, and J. A. Vanderhoof, “Effects of isolated zinc deficiency on the composition of skeletal muscle, liver and bone during growth in rats,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 116, no. 4, pp. 610–617, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. Eder and M. Kirchgessner, “Dietary fat influences the effect of zinc deficiency on liver lipids and fatty acids in rats force-fed equal quantities of diet,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 124, no. 10, pp. 1917–1926, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. Eder and M. Kirchgessner, “Zinc deficiency and activities of lipogenic and glycolytic enzymes in liver of rats fed coconut oil or linseed oil,” Lipids, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 63–69, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. T. Dieck, F. Döring, D. Fuchs, H.-P. Roth, and H. Daniel, “Transcriptome and proteome analysis identifies the pathways that increase hepatic lipid accumulation in zinc-deficient rats,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 135, no. 2, pp. 199–205, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Y. S. Huang, S. C. Cunnane, D. F. Horrobin, and J. Davignon, “Most biological effects of zinc deficiency corrected by γ-linolenic acid (18: 3ω6) but not by linoleic acid (18: 2ω6),” Atherosclerosis, vol. 41, no. 2-3, pp. 193–207, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Lefevre, C. L. Keen, B. Lönnerdal, L. S. Hurley, and B. O. Schneeman, “Different effects of zinc and copper deficiency on composition of plasma high density lipoproteins in rats,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 359–368, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. C. Cunnane, “Evidence that adverse effects of zinc deficiency on essential fatty acid composition in rats are independent of food intake,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 273–278, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. Weigand and C. Boesch-Saadatmandi, “Interaction between marginal zinc and high fat supply on lipid metabolism and growth of weanling rats,” Lipids, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 291–302, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. A. Sawin, B. M. Stroup, S. G. Murali et al., “Differential effects of dietary fat content and protein source on bone phenotype and fatty acid oxidation in female C57Bl/6 mice,” PLoS ONE, vol. 11, no. 10, Article ID e0163234, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. J. Justus and E. Weigand, “A moderate zinc deficiency does not impair gene expression of PPARα, PPARγ, and mitochondrial enoyl-CoA delta isomerase in the liver of growing rats,” Nutrition and Metabolic Insights, vol. 7, pp. 29–37, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. S. W. Souci, W. Fachmann, and H. Kraut, Eds., Food Composition and Nutrition Tables, Medpharm Scientific Publishers, Stuttgart, Germany, 7th edition, 2012.
  19. C. Naumann and R. Bässler, Eds., Methodenbuch. Band III: Die Chemische Untersuchung von Futtermitteln, VDLUFA, Darmstadt, Germany, 3rd edition, 2006.
  20. M. A. Kaluzny, L. A. Duncan, M. V. Merritt, and D. E. Epps, “Rapid separation of lipid classes in high yield and purity using bonded phase columns,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 135–140, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Syhre, G. Hanschmann, and R. Heber, “Derivatisierungstechniken in der Rückstandanalytik,” GIT Labor-Fachzeitschrift, vol. 11, pp. 1121–1128, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  22. C. D. Stubbs and A. D. Smith, “The modification of mammalian membrane polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in relation to membrane fluidity and function,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta—Reviews on Biomembranes, vol. 779, no. 1, pp. 89–137, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Sato and Y. Nakashima, “Rats allowed to self-select zinc-deficient lard and fish-oil diets did not develop a preference for fish-oil diet,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 156–161, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. Weigand, “Fat source affects growth of weanling rats fed high-fat diets low in zinc,” Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 17–24, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. W. J. Bettger, P. G. Reeves, E. A. Moscatelli, J. E. Savage, and B. L. O'Dell, “Interaction of zinc and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the chick,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 50–58, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. Eder and M. Kirchgessner, “Effects of zinc deficiency on concentrations of lipids in liver and plasma of rats,” Trace Elements and Electrocytes, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 60–65, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. Kudo, Y. Nakagawa, and K. Waku, “Effects of zinc deficiency on the fatty acid composition and metabolism in rats fed a fat-free diet,” Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 49–60, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. F. Nassir, R. K. Blanchard, A. Mazur, R. J. Cousins, and N. O. Davidson, “Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing is preserved in the intestine and liver of zinc-deficient rats,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 126, no. 4, pp. 860–864, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. Eder and M. Kirchgessner, “The effect of dietary fat on activities of lipogenic enzymes in liver and adipose tissue of zinc-adequate and zinc-deficient rats,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 190–195, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. P. Angulo, “Medical progress: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 346, no. 16, pp. 1221–1231, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Jansen, W. Karges, and L. Rink, “Zinc and diabetes—clinical links and molecular mechanisms,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 399–417, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. S. Prasad, “Zinc is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent: its role in human health,” Frontiers in Nutrition, vol. 1, pp. 1–10, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. K. D. Wiggers, M. J. Richard, J. W. Stewart, N. L. Jacobson, and P. J. Berger, “Type and amount of dietary fat affect relative concentration of cholesterol in blood and other tissues of rats,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 27–34, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. H.-C. Lai, J. B. Lasekan, H. Yang, M. K. Clayton, and D. M. Ney, “In vivo determination of triglyceride secretion using radioactive glycerol in rats fed different dietary saturated fats,” Lipids, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 824–830, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C. C. Monsma, D. D. Gallaher, and D. M. Ney, “Reduced digestibility of beef tallow and cocoa butter affects bile acid excretion and reduces hepatic esterified cholesterol in rats,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 126, no. 8, pp. 2028–2035, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Chait, A. Onitiri, A. Nicoll, E. Rabaya, J. Davies, and B. Lewis, “Reduction of serum triglyceride levels by polyunsaturated fat. Studies on the mode of action and on very low density lipoprotein composition,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 347–364, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. I. S. Chen, S. Subramaniam, G. V. Vahouny, M. M. Cassidy, I. Ikeda, and D. Kritchevsky, “A comparison of the digestion and absorption of cocoa butter and palm kernel oil and their effects on cholesterol absorption in rats,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 119, no. 11, pp. 1569–1573, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. T. Nakamura, Y. Cheon, Y. Li, and T. Y. Nara, “Mechanisms of regulation of gene expression by fatty acids,” Lipids, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 1077–1083, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. H. Oosterveer, T. H. van Dijk, U. J. F. Tietge et al., “High fat feeding induces hepatic fatty acid elongation in mice,” PLoS ONE, vol. 4, no. 6, Article ID e6066, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. Justus and E. Weigand, “The effect of a moderate zinc deficiency and dietary fat source on the activity and expression of the Δ3Δ2-enoyl-CoA isomerase in the liver of growing rats,” Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 158, no. 3, pp. 365–375, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. K. Eder and M. Kirchgessner, “Dietary zinc deficiency and fatty acid metabolism in rats,” Nutrition Research, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1179–1189, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. T. R. Kramer, M. Briske-Anderson, S. B. Johnson, and R. T. Holman, “Influence of reduced food intake on polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in zinc-deficient rats,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 114, no. 7, pp. 1224–1230, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. T. R. Kramer, M. Briske-Anderson, S. B. Johnson, and R. T. Holman, “Polyunsaturated fatty acid patterns in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues of zinc deficient and pair-fed rats,” Nutrition Research, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 1063–1074, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. Z.-Y. Chen and S. C. Cunnane, “Preferential retention of linoleic acid-enriched triacylglycerols in liver and serum during fasting,” American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, vol. 263, no. 2, pp. R233–R239, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. K. Eder and M. Kirchgessner, “Activities of liver microsomal fatty acid desaturases in zinc-deficient rats force-fed diets with a coconut oil/safflower oil mixture of linseed oil,” Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 215–229, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. R. R. Brenner and R. O. Peluffo, “Effect of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on the desaturation in vitro of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 241, no. 22, pp. 5213–5219, 1966. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. R. B. Williams and C. F. Mills, “The experimental production of zinc deficiency in the rat,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 989–1003, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. Kirchgessner and J. Pallauf, “Zinkdepletion wachsender Ratten,” Zeitschrift für Tierphysiologie Tierernährung und Futtermittelkunde, vol. 29, pp. 65–76, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. H.-P. Roth, “Development of alimentary zinc deficiency in growing rats is retarded at low dietary protein levels,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 133, no. 7, pp. 2294–2301, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus