Table 2: Color of fruits and vegetables, select phytochemicals, and physiological effects.

ColorFruitsVegetablesSelect phytochemicalsPhysiological effects

RedApples
Blood oranges
Cherries
Cranberries
Lingonberries
Nectarines
Pink grapefruit
Pomegranate
Raspberries
Red currants
Red pears
Red plums
Strawberries
Watermelon
Radicchio
Radishes
Red beets
Red bell peppers
Red cabbage
Red chard
Red jalapeño pepper
Red onion
Red potatoes
Tomatoes
Anthocyanins
Carotenoids
Ellagic acid
Ellagitannins
Fisetin
Flavones
Lycopene
Phloretin
Quercetin
(i) Anti-inflammatory
(ii) General antioxidant activity
(iii) Immune modulation

OrangeApricots
Blood oranges
Cantaloupe
Kumquat
Mandarins
Mangoes
Nectarines
Oranges
Papaya
Passion fruit
Peaches
Persimmons
Tangerines
Carrots
Orange bell peppers
Pumpkin
Sweet potatoes
Turmeric
Yams
Alpha-carotene
Beta-carotene
Beta-cryptoxanthin
Bioflavonoids
Carotenoids
Curcuminoids
(i) Antioxidant for fat-soluble tissues
(ii) Endocrine modulation
(iii) Role in ovulation and fertility processes

YellowApples (golden delicious)
Asian pears
Bananas
Lemons
Pineapple
Star fruit
Corn
Ginger
Potatoes (Yukon)
Squash (acorn, buttercup, butternut, summer, winter)
Yellow bell peppers
Yellow onions
Bioflavonoids
Bromelain
Gingerol
Lutein
Nobiletin
Prebiotic fibers
Rutin
Zeaxanthin
(i) Antioxidant
(ii) Enzymatic activity
(iii) Gastric motility and regulation
(iv) Reduce glycemic impact
(v) Role in fostering a healthy gut microbiome

GreenAvocado
Brussels sprouts
Green tea
Green apples
Limes
Olives
Pears
Artichokes
Asparagus
Bamboo sprouts
Bean sprouts
Bell peppers
Bitter melon
Bok choy
Broccoli
Broccolini
Cabbage
Celery
Cucumbers
Edamame
Green beans
Green peas
Greens (beet, chard, collards, dandelion, kale, lettuce, mustard, spinach, turnip)
Okra
Rosemary and other herbs
Snow peas
Watercress
Catechins
Chlorogenic acid
Chlorophyll
Epigallocatechin gallate
Flavonoids
Folates
Glucosinolates
Isoflavones
Isothiocyanates
L-theanine
Nitrates
Oleocanthal
Oleuropein
Phytosterols
Silymarin
Sulforaphane
Tannins
Theaflavins
Tyrosol
Vitexin
(i) Antioxidant
(ii) Blood vessel support
(iii) Role in healthy circulation and methylation

Blue-purpleBlackberries
Blueberries
Boysenberries
Figs
Huckleberries
Prunes
Purple grapes
Raisins
Eggplant
Plums
Purple bell peppers
Purple cabbage
Purple carrots
Purple cauliflower
Purple kale
Purple potatoes
Anthocyanidins
Flavonoids
Phenolic acids
Proanthocyanidins
Pterostilbene
Resveratrol
Stilbenes
(i) Antioxidant
(ii) Cognitive support
(iii) Healthy mood balance
(iv) Role in neuronal health