Table 3: Select foods, their (phyto)nutrient profile, and health benefits.

ColorFoodSome food formats researchedBasic (phyto)nutrient profileResearched health benefits

RedTomatoesJuice, powder, raw, sauce (prepared with and without oil)Carotenoids (e.g., lycopene), flavonoids, vitamin C(i) Reduction in inflammatory markers
(ii) Reduction in postprandial inflammation
(iii) Improvement in lipid markers

RedStrawberriesFreeze-dried as beveragePolyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins), vitamin C(i) Reduction in postprandial inflammation
(ii) Reduction in pain due to osteoarthritis

RedBeetsCooked, raw juiceBetalains(i) Reduction in inflammatory markers

OrangeWild yamCookedPhytoestrogens(i) Increase in estrogen and estrogen metabolites
(ii) Phytoestrogenic activity

OrangeCarrotsNot specifiedAlpha- and beta-carotene(i) Decrease in rate of breast and prostate cancer
(ii) Phytoestrogenic activity
(iii) Association with estrogen metabolism

OrangeOrange fruitsNot specifiedBioflavonoids, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin(i) Delay in ovarian senescence
(ii) Lower risk for endometriosis

YellowGingerStandardized extractGingerols, shogaols(i) Decrease in nausea
(ii) Increase in gastric emptying

YellowCitrus (lemons)Juice, rawHesperidin, nobiletin, rutin, vitamin C(i) Protective against gastric ulcer
(ii) Antidiabetic
(iii) Reduction in glycemic impact

YellowPineappleJuiceBromelain, serotonin(i) Enzymatic activity

YellowBananasRawPrebiotic fiber, serotonin(i) Increase in bifidobacteria
(ii) Reduction in bloating

GreenLeafy greensRaw, spinachChlorophyll, folate, nitrates, phylloquinone(i) Reduction in blood pressure
(ii) Increase in nitric oxide
(iii) Increase in blood flow

GreenCruciferous vegetablesNot specifiedGlucosinolates, isothiocyanates, sulforaphane(i) Antioxidant action
(ii) Reduction in platelet aggregation
(iii) Reduction in thrombus formation

Blue-purpleConcord grape juiceJuicePhenolic acids, stilbenes, anthocyanins, proanthocyanins(i) Improvement in spatial memory and performance
(ii) Improvement in reaction time on attention
(iii) Increase in calm ratings

Blue-purpleBlueberriesBeverage, freeze-dried, rawFlavonoids, procyanidins (monomeric and oligomeric form), flavonols (i.e., kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin), phenolic acids (mainly hydroxycinnamic acids), derivatives of stilbenes(i) Improvement in measures of cognition
(ii) Benefit to mood
(iii) Improvement in neuroplasticity

This table provides a summary of certain foods and accompanying animal and/or clinical research studies as discussed in this review article. Details on the studies can be found in the respective color section in the text.