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Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume 2019, Article ID 2647230, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2647230
Research Article

Dietary Quantity and Diversity among Anemic Pregnant Women in Madura Island, Indonesia

1Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Campus C Mulyorejo, Surabaya, East Java 60115, Indonesia
2Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Human Ecology, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia
3Graduate School (Nutrition), IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia
4Department of Physical and Sport Education, STKIP PGRI Sumenep, Sumenep, Indonesia
5Department of Health Promotion and Behavioral Science, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

Correspondence should be addressed to Rian Diana; di.ca.rianu.mkf@anaid.nair

Received 19 June 2019; Revised 18 August 2019; Accepted 11 September 2019; Published 30 September 2019

Academic Editor: Mohammed S. Razzaque

Copyright © 2019 Rian Diana et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Dietary diversity and quantity are important for pregnant women, particularly anemic pregnant women. This study aimed to analyze the association between dietary quantity and diversity among anemic pregnant women. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2017 at Madura Island, Indonesia, and involved 152 anemic pregnant women. Hemoglobin concentration was analyzed by the cyanmethemoglobin method. Dietary quantity was measured by the 2 × 24 h recall. Dietary diversity was determined by Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women of Reproductive Age (MDD-W). Spearman’s rank association was performed to analyze the association between dietary diversity and quantity. The median of hemoglobin concentration was 10.1 g/dL, and 57.2% pregnant women had mild anemia. Most of the pregnant women had low adequacy levels of energy and macro- and micronutrients (except for iron). More than half (57.9%) of anemic pregnant women had reached minimum dietary diversity. Family size () and gestational age () had negative associations with dietary diversity. Dietary diversity had positive associations with energy (), protein (), vitamin A (), vitamin C (), and zinc () adequacy levels. Dietary diversity had no significant association with calcium () and iron adequacy level (). High prevalence of mild and moderate anemia was found among pregnant women in their third trimester. Anemic pregnant women already consumed food with minimum dietary diversity but did not meet dietary quantity. Increasing dietary quantity is a priority for anemic pregnant women.