Table 1: Dietary iron intake in nonpregnant women of predominantly reproductive age in 29 European countries. For comparison, in some countries, iron intake in postmenopausal women is shown as well.

Country and name of survey (if not nationwide, the region is quoted)Study periodWomen, nAge, yrs rangeDietary methodDietary iron intake (mg/day)Weighted dataHeme iron, mean % of iron intakeDietary iron density, mg/10 MJRecommended iron intake in women9 at time of study (mg/day)Iron intake below recommended % of women9Reference
Mean ± SD2MedianPercentiles/CI4IQ8 range

Austria (Österreichischer Ernährungsbericht)2007134519–6424-hour recall11.9 ± 4.4NoRI 15Mean intake >15% lower than RI[14]
Austria (Österreichischer Ernährungsbericht)201118018–5024-hour recall ×  2∼11.0∼10.2–12.04YesRI 15[15]
Belgium (De Belgische Voedselconsumptiepeiling)200446019–5924-hour recall × 29.9 ± 2.29.78.3–11.3NoRNI 20100% had intake < RNI[16]
Belgium (City of Ghent)200664118–392 days food diary10.69.0–12.8No5.7Median 13.1 (11.0–15.38)RDA 20Median intake 53% of RDA[17]
Belgium (De Belgische Voedselconsumptiepeiling)201430018–3924-hour recall × 28.48.2–8.94NoAR 7 RNI 1596% had intake < RNI[18]
Bosnia (Canton Una-Sana)∼2014∼13618–5024-hour recall7.6 ± 7.9NoRDA 18100% had intake < RDA[19]
Croatia (University Centers)∼200548018–30FFQ1a16.1 ± 7.9NoDRI 18Mean intake significantly lower than DRI[20]
Denmark (Danskernes Kostvaner)2003–200893318–457 days food diary9.0 ± 2.58.85.2–13.257.4–10.5NoRDA 15[21]
Denmark (Danskernes Kostvaner)2003–2008156919–647 days food diary9.0 ± 2.48.85.3–13.257.4–10.5NoRDA 15[21]
Denmark (Danskernes Kostvaner)2003–2008178518–757 days food diary9.0 ± 2.58.86.1–12.06NoMean 11.5; median 11.3 (9.2–14.06)RDA 15[21]
Denmark (Danskernes Kostvaner)2011–201368618–457 days food diary9.9 ± 2.99.75.6–14.558.1–11.5NoAR 10 RDA 1554% had intake < AR; 97% had intake < RDA[22]
Denmark (Danskernes Kostvaner)2011–2013125919–647 days food diary10.1 ± 2.89.95.8–14.858.2–11.7NoRDA 15[22]
Denmark (Danskernes Kostvaner)2011–2013155218–757 days food diary10.0 ± 2.99.86.7–13.46NoMean 12.0; median 11.9 (9.6–14.66)RDA 15[22]
Estonia (WHO Nutrition and Lifestyle in the Baltic Republics)199783519–4924-hour recall12 ± 711NoMean ∼18 ± 8.02[23]
Estonia (WHO Nutrition and Lifestyle in the Baltic Republics)199728050+24-hour recall11 ± 710NoMean 18 ± 8.02[23]
Finland (FINDIET, City of Helsinki)199711825–4924-hour recall10.3NoMean 15RDA 12–18[24]
Finland (FINDIET, City of Helsinki)19976750–5424-hour recall9.1NoMean 15RDA 910[24]
Finland (FINDIET)201271025–6424-hour recall × 210.3 ± 4.010.36–165NoMean 14 (13–154); 95% intervalAR 10 RDA 15Mean intake 68% of RDA[25]
France (SU.VI.MAX)1995–1996Fraction of 311135–446 days food diary11.8∼7.1–18.75No10.4Median 15.8 (11.5–24.45)RDA 1893% had intake < RDA[26]
France (SU.VI.MAX)1995–1996Fraction of 311145–606 days food diary11.8∼7.0–19.75No10.9Median 15.8 (11.5–24.45)RDA 10[26]
France (INCA1)1998–199953618–547 days food diary∼11.2 ± 3.0No[27]
France (INCA2)2006–200765718–547 days food diary∼11.9 ± 3.8No[27]
Germany (GENUS)1998226718–79 (47% < 45 y)DHI1b∼14.2∼13.8–14.611No[28]
Germany (Ernährungsverhalten in Deutschland)1998122818–44DHI1b∼13.6∼9.5–19.26NoRDA 15[29]
Germany (Ernährungsverhalten in Deutschland)199838145–54DHI1b∼13.7∼9.4–19.46NoRDA 10[29]
Germany (Nationale Verzehrsstudie II)2006417619–50DHI1b∼12.6 ± 0.113∼12.2∼7.1–20.05∼9.8–17.9NoRDA 15∼78% had intake < RDA[30]
Hungary (OTAP)2003–200447118–643 days food diary9.7 ± 0.1239.5–10.04YesRDA 1591% (88–934) had intake < RDA[31]
Hungary (OTAP)200952718–643 days food diary9.8 ± 0.239.5–10.24YesRDA 1590% (87–924) had intake < RDA[32]
Hungary (OTAP)201437518–643 days food diary9.8 ± 0.239.4–10.24YesRDA 1587% (82–904) had intake < RDA[33]
Iceland (Hvað borða Íslendingar?)2010–2011∼15018–4524-hour recall × 210.2 ± 4.3NoRDA 15Mean intake 68% of RDA[34]
Ireland (NSIFCS)1997–199955518–503 days food diary∼10.1 ± 3.4∼9.6∼5.6–16.35No[35]
Ireland (NANS)208–201164018–644 days food diary13.7YesRI 14.861% had intake < RI[36]
Italy (INRAN-SCAI)2005–2006124418–653 days food diary10.29.95.7–15.85No[37]
Latvia (WHO Nutrition and Lifestyle in the Baltic Republics)199773819–4924-hour recall13.0 ± 7.013NoMean 18.0 ± 8.02[23]
Latvia (WHO Nutrition and Lifestyle in the Baltic Republics)199749750+24-hour recall13.0 ± 8.012NoMean 19.0 ± 8.02[23]
Lithuania (WHO Nutrition and Lifestyle in the Baltic Republics)199775219–4924-hour recall∼20.5 ± 12.518.5NoMean 26.0 ± 13.52[23]
Lithuania (WHO Nutrition and Lifestyle in the Baltic Republics)199738050+24-hour recall20.0 ± 12.018.0NoMean 24.0 ± 14.02[23]
Netherlands199611120–493 days food diary∼11.0 ± 2.8No14.5RDA 15Mean intake ∼29% of RDA[38]
Netherlands199611150–793 days food diary∼10.5 ± 2.8No16.2RDA 810Mean intake ∼29% of RDA[38]
Netherlands (TNO Rapport)1997–1998147222–502 days food diary10.7 ± 3.210.46.1–16.25NoRDA 15[39]
Netherlands (TNO Rapport)1997–199851250–652 days food diary10.7 ± 3.310.45.9–16.75NoRDA 8[39]
Netherlands (DNCS)2007–201069819–5024-hour recall × 29.66.5–13.55NoRDA 15[40]
Northern Ireland (NDNS)2008–201224619–644 days food diary9.1 ± 2.79.14.0–14.67YesRNI 14.8Mean intake 73% of RNI[41]
Norway (NORKOST)2010–201118–7024-hour recall × 210 ± 4107.5–12NoAR 10 RDA 15[42]
Poland (Household Food Consumption in Poland)2000133419–6424-hour recall10.7 ± 6.5[43]
Portugal (City of Porto)2004–200524918–40FFQ1a15.913.3–18.8NoAR 8.10% had intake < AR[44]
Russia (Russian Longitudinal Monitoring survey 1–4)1993–1994516114–5424-hour recall11.88.5–14.0No10.3[45]
Scotland (NDNS)2008–201221925–494 days food diary9.6 ± 3.09.34.6–16.37YesRNI 14.8Mean intake 65% of RNI[46]
Scotland (NDNS)2008–201211950–644 days food diary9.3 ± 3.18.93.4–15.57YesRNI 810Mean intake of RNI[46]
Serbia2013–201550125–4924-hour recall × 39.4 ± 4.0NoAR 8.1 RDA 1595% had intake < RDA[47]
Serbia2013–201512550–6524-hour recall × 310.0 ± 5.7NoAR 5 RDA 91050% had intake < RDA[47]
Slovakia (Dietary Habits of the Slovak Population)1995–1999121118–8024-hour recall18.6 ± 7.1NoMean intake was 124% of RDA[48]
Spain, Catalonia (ENCAT)1992–199375718–4424-hour recall × 2∼11.8Mean intake 65% of RNI[49]
Spain (Madrid University)199613019–357 days food diary11.1 ± 3.05.1–16.85No29.7Mean 14.1, range 6.2–23.4RI 1898% had intake < RI; mean intake 62% of RI[50]
Spain, Catalonia (ENCAT)2002–200355818–4424-hour recall × 210.5Mean intake 58% of RNI[49]
Spain (ANIBES)20139969–753 days food diary9.87.9–11.9No20.1RI 18∼90% had intake < RI[51]
Sweden (City of Umeå)2006–200920630–40FFQ1a∼14.5∼13.9–15.14AR 10 RDA 15[52]
Sweden (Riksmaten)2010–201144918–444 days food diary∼9.4 ± 3.3∼9.0∼4.6–15.05NoMean 12.4 ± 3.62; median 11.8 (3.3–18.45)AR 10 RDA 15∼95% had intake < RDA[53]
Switzerland, Canton Geneva (Bus Santé Geneva)200954234–74FFQ1a9.8 ± 3.6Yes[54]
UK (NDNS)2000–200189119–644 days food diary10.09.67.3–12.2Yes4.3RNI 14.827% had intake < LRNI[55]
UK (NDNS) years 1–22008–200925319–644 days food diary9.97.8–12.0YesRNI 14.821% had intake < LRNI[55]
UK (NDNS) years 1–42008–2009 and 2011–2012157119–644 days food diary9.6 ± 3.09.54.1–15.97YesRNI 14.8Mean intake 78% of RNI[56]
UK (NDNS) years 1–42008–2009 and 2011–201243665+4 days food diary9.4 ± 2.79.14.9–15.37YesRNI 8.710Mean intake 109% of RNI[56]
UK (NDNS) years 5–62012–2013 and 2013–201459219–644 days food diary9.4 ± 3.19.34.1–15.77YesRNI 14.827% had intake < LRNI; mean intake 76% of RNI[57]
UK (NDNS) years 5–62012–2013 and 2013–201419365+4 days food diary9.3 ± 3.28.84.3–16.57YesRNI 8.710Mean intake 106% of RNI[57]
Wales (NDNS)2009–2010 and 2012–201319819–644 days food diary9.6 ± 3.29.44.2–16.87YesRNI 14.825% had intake < LRNI; mean intake 79% of RNI[58]
Wales (NDNS)2009–2010 and 2012–20137965+4 days food diary8.9 ± 3.08.73.3–17.17YesRNI 8106% had intake < LRNI; mean intake 102% of RNI[58]

1aFFQ = Food Frequency Questionnaire; 1bDHI = dietary history interview; 2SD = standard deviation; 3SE = standard error; 4CI = 95% confidence interval; 55–95 percentiles; 610–90 percentiles; 72.5–97.5 percentiles; 8IQ range = interquartile range; 9women of reproductive age; 10postmenopausal women; 1195% confidence interval of the mean; DRI = dietary reference intake, reference value used to plan and assess nutrient intake of healthy women (Institute of Medicine, USA); AR = estimated average requirement, daily intake levels estimated to meet the needs of half of the healthy women, provided a normal distribution of requirement; RDA = recommended dietary allowance, daily intake being sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97-98%) healthy women; RNI = reference nutrient intake also named “population reference intake,” daily intake being sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97.5%) healthy women; RI = recommended intake, daily intake being recommended to meet the nutrient requirements of healthy women; LRNI = lowest recommended nutrient intake, the amount of a nutrient or energy, which is sufficient for only a few healthy women.