Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism / 2020 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Dietary Intake across Reproductive Life Stages of Women in India: A Cross-Sectional Survey from 4 Districts of India

Table 1

Sociodemographic characteristics of study participants (n = 1687).

CharacteristicsAdolescent girls n = 223, N (%)Newly married women n = 532, N (%)Pregnant women n = 477, N (%)Lactating mothers n = 455, N (%)Total n = 1687, N (%)

Residential area
 Rural122 (54.7)272 (51.1)243 (50.9)229 (50.3)866 (51.3)
 Urban slums101 (45.3)260 (48.9)234 (49.1)224 (49.7)821 (48.7)

District
 Sri Ganganagar59 (26.5)170 (32)138 (28.9)137 (30.1)504 (29.9)
 Patna63 (28.3)102 (19.2)105 (22)92 (20.2)362 (21.5)
 West Delhi72 (32.3)169 (31.8)150 (31.4)149 (32.7)540 (32)
 Bangalore29 (13)91 (17.1)84 (17.6)77 (16.9)281 (16.7)

Educational status of women or girls
 Primary or below24 (10.8)174 (32.7)145 (30.4)139 (30.5)482 (28.6)
 Middle school99 (44.4)138 (25.9)142 (29.8)165 (36.3)544 (32.2)
 High school99 (44.4)170 (32.0)149 (31.2)111 (24.4)529 (31.4)
 College and above1 (0.4)50 (9.4)41 (8.6)40 (8.8)132 (7.8)

Occupational status of women or girls
 Unskilled work22 (9.9)55 (10.3)26 (5.5)21 (4.6)124 (7.4)
 Semiskilled work2 (0.9)4 (0.8)4 (0.8)0 (0.0)10 (0.6)
 Skilled work3 (1.3)20 (3.8)2 (0.4)4 (0.9)29 (1.7)
 Housewife14 (6.3)442 (83.1)439 (92)422 (92.7)1317 (78.1)
 Student182 (81.6)11 (2.1)6 (1.3)8 (1.8)207 (12.3)

Social class of family
 Schedule tribe4 (1.8)14 (2.6)12 (2.5)8 (1.8)38 (2.3)
 Other backward classes69 (30.9)150 (28.2)133 (27.9)131 (29.8)483 (28.6)
 Schedule caste100 (44.8)272 (51.1)250 (52.4)228 (50.1)850 (50.4)
 General class50 (22.4)96 (18)82 (17.2)88 (19.3)316 (18.7)

Socioeconomic status of women
 Lower8 (3.6)13 (2.4)20 (4.2)11 (2.4)52 (3.1)
 Upper lower162 (72.6)399 (75.0)348 (73.0)316 (69.5)1225 (72.6)
 Lower middle47 (21.1)113 (21.2)98 (20.5)105 (23.1)363 (21.5)
 Upper middle6 (2.7)7 (1.3)11 (2.3)23 (5.1)47 (2.8)

Family type
 Nuclear173 (77.6)265 (49.8)232 (48.6)234 (51.4)904 (53.6)
 Extended or joint50 (22.4)267 (50.2)245 (51.4)221 (48.6)783 (46.4)

Registered at Anganwadi (ICDS) centre
 Yes65 (29.1)16 (3)323 (67.7)279 (61.3)683 (40.5)
 No158 (70.8)516 (97)154 (32.3)176 (38.7)1004 (59.5)

Cooking fuel
 Solid (cow dung or firewood)71 (31.8)211 (39.7)182 (38.2)162 (35.6)626 (37.1)
 Liquid (kerosene)4 (1.8)10 (1.9)9 (1.9)12 (2.6)35 (2.1)
 Gas (Biogas/LPG)148 (66.4)311 (58.5)286 (60)281 (61.8)1026 (60.8)

Cooking utensils
 Iron11 (4.9)35 (6.6)31 (6.5)29 (6.4)106 (6.3)
 Other metals (copper/aluminium)107 (48.0)248 (46.6)228 (47.8)221 (48.6)804 (47.7)
 Stainless steel105 (47.1)249 (46.8)218 (45.7)205 (45.1)777 (46.1)

Receipt of iron-folic acid tablets
 Yes49 (21.9)26 (4.8)192 (40.2)124 (27.2)391 (23.1)
 No32 (14.3)41 (7.7)99 (20.7)159 (34.9)331 (19.6)
 Missing142 (63.6)465 (87.4)186 (38.9)172 (37.8)965 (57.2)

Receipt of supplementary food at ICDS
 Received34 (15.2)NA222 (46.5)213 (46.8)469 (40.6)
 Not received189 (84.8)NA255 (53.5)242 (53.2)686 (59.4)

ICDS, Integrated Child Development Service Scheme; LPG, liquefied petroleum gas; NA,ot applicable. Occupations: unskilled work included maids, servants, gatekeepers, cleaner, helper, sweeper farmer, etc.; semiskilled work includes drivers, waiters, etc.; skilled work includes technicians, electricians, tailors, cooks, etc. Significant differences were found using Kruskal–Wallis test in energy and all the nutrients ().

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