Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Nanotechnology
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 1250739, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1250739
Research Article

Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Urea Grafted Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes in Enhancing Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Nitrogen Uptake by Paddy Plants

1Engineering Materials Department, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia
2Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Kulliyyah of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 10, 50728 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3Carbon Research Technology Research Group, Engineering Materials Department, Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka, Malaysia

Received 6 June 2016; Accepted 20 July 2016

Academic Editor: Valery Khabashesku

Copyright © 2016 Norazlina Mohamad Yatim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. X. Fan, D. Xie, J. Chen et al., “Over-expression of OsPTR6 in rice increased plant growth at different nitrogen supplies but decreased nitrogen use efficiency at high ammonium supply,” Plant Science, vol. 227, pp. 1–11, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. J. Lea and J.-F. Morot-Gaudry, Eds., Plant Nitrogen, Springer, 2001.
  3. E. Epstein, Mineral Nutrition of Plants: Principles and Perspectives, 1972.
  4. M. E. Trenkel, Slow and Controlled Released and Stabilized Fertilizer an Option for Enhancing Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Agriculture, vol. 53, 2nd edition, 2010.
  5. L. M. Maene, in Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting Fertilizer Industry Roundtable, 1995.
  6. Z.-Z. Li, J.-F. Chen, F. Liu et al., “Study of UV-shielding properties of novel porous hollow silica nanoparticle carriers for avermectin,” Pest Management Science, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 241–246, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. S. Vijayakumar, O. U. Abhilash, B. M. Khan, and B. L. V. Prasad, “Nanogold-loaded sharp-edged carbon bullets as plant-gene carriers,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 20, no. 15, pp. 2416–2423, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. V. Ghormade, M. V. Deshpande, and K. M. Paknikar, “Perspectives for nano-biotechnology enabled protection and nutrition of plants,” Biotechnology Advances, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 792–803, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. A. Wilson, N. H. Tran, A. S. Milev, G. S. K. Kannangara, H. Volk, and G. Q. M. Lu, “Nanomaterials in soils,” Geoderma, vol. 146, no. 1-2, pp. 291–302, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. Nair, S. H. Varghese, B. G. Nair, T. Maekawa, Y. Yoshida, and D. S. Kumar, “Nanoparticulate material delivery to plants,” Plant Science, vol. 179, no. 3, pp. 154–163, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Pérez-de-Luque and D. Rubiales, “Nanotechnology for parasitic plant control,” Pest Management Science, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 540–545, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. García, T. Forbe, and E. Gonzalez, “Potential applications of nanotechnology in the agro-food sector,” Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 573–581, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. Sharon, M. Choudhary, and A. Kumar, “Nanotechnology in agricultural diseasesd and food safety,” Journal of Phytology, vol. 2, pp. 83–92, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  14. A. Bhattacharyya, A. Bhaumik, P. U. Rani, S. Mandal, and T. T. Epidi, “Nano-particles—a recent approach to insect pest control,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 9, no. 24, pp. 3489–3493, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. Srilatha, “Nanotechnology in agriculture,” Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, vol. 2, no. 7, article 123, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  16. L. Rashidi and K. Khosravi-Darani, “The applications of nanotechnology in food industry,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 723–730, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. Zheng, F. Hong, S. Lu, and C. Liu, “Effect of nano-TiO2 on strength of naturally aged seeds and growth of spinach,” Biological Trace Element Research, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 83–91, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. L. R. Khot, S. Sankaran, J. M. Maja, R. Ehsani, and E. W. Schuster, “Applications of nanomaterials in agricultural production and crop protection: a review,” Crop Protection, vol. 35, pp. 64–70, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. V. Anguita, D. C. Cox, M. Ahmad, Y. Y. Tan, J. Allam, and S. R. P. Silva, “Highly transmissive carbon nanotube forests grown at low substrate temperature,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 23, no. 44, pp. 5502–5509, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Q. Liu, B. Chen, Q. Wang et al., “Carbon nanotubes as molecular transporters for walled plant cells,” Nano Letters, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 1007–1010, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. M. Lu, C. Y. Zhang, and J. Q. Wen, “Research of the effect of nanometer materials on germination and growth enhancement of glycine max and its mechanism,” Soybean Science, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 168–172, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  22. A.-X. Liu, Q.-M. Lu, Y.-J. Cao, Z.-W. Liao, and Q.-H. Xu, “Effects of composite nanomaterials on rice growth,” Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 344–347, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  23. Z. J. F. Xiao Qiang, Z. S. Qing, Z. D. Fu, and W. Y. Jun, “Effects of slow/controlled release fertilizers felted and coated by nanomaterials on crop yield and quality,” Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science, vol. 5, pp. 951–955, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  24. Z. M. Liu, J. Zhang, and Y. D. Zhang, “Study on application of nanometer biotechnology on the yield and quality of winter wheat,” Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences, vol. 35, pp. 15578–15580, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  25. Q. Yin-fei, S. Cai-hong, Q. Cai-fei et al., “Primarily study of the effects of nanometer carbon fertilizer synergist on the late rice,” Acta Agriculturae Boreali-Sinica, supplement 2, pp. 249–253, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  26. J. A. Razak, S. H. Ahmad, C. T. Ratnam, M. A. Mahamood, J. Yaakub, and N. Mohamad, “Effects of EPDM-g-MAH compatibilizer and internal mixer processing parameters on the properties of NR/EPDM blends: an analysis using response surface methodology,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 132, no. 27, Article ID 42199, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. Chakravarti and V. Sahai, “Optimization of compactin production in chemically defined production medium by Penicillium citrinum using statistical methods,” Process Biochemistry, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 481–486, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. N. Mohamad, A. Muchtar, M. J. Ghazali, D. H. J. Mohd, and C. H. Azhari, “Epoxidized natural rubber-alumina nanoparticle composites: optimization of mixer parameters via response surface methodology,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 183–189, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. Talei, A. Valdiani, M. Maziah, and M. Mohsenkhah, “Germination response of MR 219 rice variety to different exposure times and periods of 2450 MHz microwave frequency,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2013, Article ID 408026, 7 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. N. M. Yatim, A. Shaaban, M. F. Dimin, and F. Yusof, “Statistical evaluation of the production of urea fertilizer-multiwalled carbon nanotubes using plackett burman experimental design,” Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 195, pp. 315–323, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. L. V. A. Reddy, Y.-J. Wee, J.-S. Yun, and H.-W. Ryu, “Optimization of alkaline protease production by batch culture of Bacillus sp. RKY3 through Plackett-Burman and response surface methodological approaches,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 7, pp. 2242–2249, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Zhang and N.-F. Gao, “Application of response surface methodology in medium optimization for pyruvic acid production of Torulopsis glabrata TP19 in batch fermentation,” Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 98–104, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. I. Khuri and J. A. Cornell, Response Surfaces: Designs and Analyses, CRC Press, 2nd edition, 1996.
  34. J. Zhang, Z. Li, K. Li, W. Huang, and L. Sang, “Nitrogen use efficiency under different field treatments on maize fields in central China: a lysimeter and 15N study,” Journal of Water Resource and Protection, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 590–596, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. H. Hu, B. Zhao, M. E. Itkis, and R. C. Haddon, “Nitric acid purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 107, no. 50, pp. 13838–13842, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. V. Georgakilas, A. Demeslis, E. Ntararas et al., “Hydrophilic nanotube supported graphene-water dispersible carbon superstructure with excellent conductivity,” Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1481–1487, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. Wick, P. Manser, L. K. Limbach et al., “The degree and kind of agglomeration affect carbon nanotube cytotoxicity,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 168, no. 2, pp. 121–131, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. A. Poland, R. Duffin, I. Kinloch et al., “Carbon nanotubes introduced into the abdominal cavity of mice show asbestos-like pathogenicity in a pilot study,” Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 423–428, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. Patlolla, A. Knighten, and B. Tchounwou, “Multi-walled carbon nanotubes induce cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and apoptosis in normal human dermal fibroblast cells,” Ethnicity & Disease, vol. 20, pp. 1–17, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  40. X.-M. Tan, C. Lin, and B. Fugetsu, “Studies on toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on suspension rice cells,” Carbon, vol. 47, no. 15, pp. 3479–3487, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. B. Wei, L. Zhang, and G. Chen, “A multi-walled carbon nanotube/poly(urea-formaldehyde) composite prepared by in situ polycondensation for enhanced electrochemical sensing,” New Journal of Chemistry, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 453–457, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. I.-Y. Jeon, D. W. Chang, N. A. Kumar, and J.-B. Baek, “Functionalization of carbon nanotubes,” in Carbon Nanotubes-Polymer Nanocomposites, InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  43. C. Gao, Y. Z. Jin, H. Kong et al., “Polyurea-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes: synthesis, morphology, and Raman spectroscopy,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 109, no. 24, pp. 11925–11932, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. Zdrojek, W. Gebicki, C. Jastrzebski, T. Melin, and A. Huczko, “Studies of multiwall carbon nanotubes using Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy,” Solid State Phenomena, vol. 99-100, pp. 265–268, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. L. Bokobza and J. Zhang, “Raman spectroscopic characterization of multiwall carbon nanotubes and of composites,” Express Polymer Letters, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 601–608, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. G. S. Duesberg, I. Loa, M. Burghard, K. Syassen, and S. Roth, “Polarized Raman spectroscopy on isolated single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 85, no. 25, pp. 5436–5439, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. Z. Syrgiannis, A. Bonasera, E. Tenori et al., “Chemical modification of carbon nanomaterials (SWCNTs, DWCNTs, MWCNTs and SWCNHs) with diphenyl dichalcogenides,” Nanoscale, vol. 7, no. 14, pp. 6007–6013, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. S. Botti, S. Laurenzi, L. Mezi, A. Rufoloni, and M. G. Santonicola, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy characterisation of functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 17, no. 33, pp. 21373–21380, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. W. Zhou, S. Sasaki, and A. Kawasaki, “Effective control of nanodefects in multiwalled carbon nanotubes by acid treatment,” Carbon, vol. 78, pp. 121–129, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. L. H. Rebelo, A. Guedes, M. E. Szefczyk, A. M. Pereira, J. P. Araújo, and C. Freire, “Progress in the Raman spectra analysis of covalently functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes: unraveling disorder in graphitic materials,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 18, no. 18, pp. 12784–12796, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. D. Lin-Vien, N. B. Colthup, W. G. Fateley, and J. G. Grasselli, The Handbook of Infrared and Raman Characteristic Frequencies of Organic Molecules, Elsevier, 1991.
  52. Y. Sun, Comparison and Combination of Near-Infrared and Raman Spectra for PLS and NAS Quantitation of Glucose, Urea and Lactate, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA, 2013.
  53. M. Mowry, D. Palaniuk, C. C. Luhrs, and S. Osswald, “Insitu Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis of the formation of nitrogen-doped graphene from urea and graphite oxide,” RSC Advances, vol. 3, no. 44, pp. 21763–21775, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. X. Hoccart and G. Turrell, “Raman spectroscopic investigation of the dynamics of urea-water complexes,” The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 99, no. 11, pp. 8498–8503, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. R. L. Frost, J. Kristof, L. Rintoul, and J. T. Kloprogge, “Raman spectroscopy of urea and urea-intercalated kaolinites at 77 K,” Spectrochimica Acta—Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 56, no. 9, pp. 1681–1691, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. M. Hashim, M. K. Yusop, R. Othman, and S. A. Wahid, “Characterization of nitrogen uptake pattern in malaysian rice MR219 at different growth stages using 15N isotope,” Rice Science, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 250–254, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. Z. Dong, L. Wu, J. Chai, Y. Zhu, Y. Chen, and Y. Zhu, “Effects of nitrogen application rates on rice grain yield, nitrogen-use efficiency, and water quality in paddy field,” Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 1579–1594, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. G. Chen, S. Guo, H. J. Kronzucker, and W. Shi, “Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in rice links to NH4+ toxicity and futile NH4+ cycling in roots,” Plant and Soil, vol. 369, no. 1-2, pp. 351–363, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. B. Singh, K. F. Bronson, Y. Singh, T. S. Khera, and E. Pasuquin, “Nitrogen-15 balance as affected by rice straw management in a rice-wheat rotation in northwest India,” Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 227–237, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. D. J. Hatch, Controlling Nitrogen Flows and Losses, Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2004.
  61. Jaykaran, D. Saxena, P. Yadav, and N. D. Kantharia, “Nonsignificant P values cannot prove null hypothesis: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence,” Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 465–466, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. S. S. Abu Amr, H. A. Aziz, and M. J. Bashir, “Application of response surface methodology (RSM) for optimization of semi-aerobic landfill leachate treatment using ozone,” Applied Water Science, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 231–239, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. A. Fakhri, “Application of response surface methodology to optimize the process variables for fluoride ion removal using maghemite nanoparticles,” Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 340–347, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus