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Journal of Nanotechnology
Volume 2016, Article ID 3020361, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3020361
Review Article

The Extraordinary Progress in Very Early Cancer Diagnosis and Personalized Therapy: The Role of Oncomarkers and Nanotechnology

1Institute of Translational Pharmacology, National Research Council (CNR), Rome, Italy
2Department of Human and Social Science, Headquarters, National Research Council (CNR), Rome, Italy
3Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino, Torino, Italy

Received 18 December 2015; Accepted 21 February 2016

Academic Editor: Aws Alshamsan

Copyright © 2016 Marialuigina Fruscella et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The impact of nanotechnology on oncology is revolutionizing cancer diagnosis and therapy and largely improving prognosis. This is mainly due to clinical translation of the most recent findings in cancer research, that is, the application of bio- and nanotechnologies. Cancer genomics and early diagnostics are increasingly playing a key role in developing more precise targeted therapies for most human tumors. In the last decade, accumulation of basic knowledge has resulted in a tremendous breakthrough in this field. Nanooncology, through the discovery of new genetic and epigenetic biomarkers, has facilitated the development of more sensitive biosensors for early cancer detection and cutting-edge multifunctionalized nanoparticles for tumor imaging and targeting. In the near future, nanooncology is expected to enable a very early tumor diagnosis, combined with personalized therapeutic approaches.