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Journal of Nanotechnology
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 5375939, 7 pages
Research Article

Sol-Gel Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles: Preparation and Structural Characterization

1Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
2Sustainable Energy Technologies (SET) Center, King Saud University, P.O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia

Received 29 June 2016; Accepted 15 November 2016

Academic Editor: Paresh Chandra Ray

Copyright © 2016 Oon Lee Kang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle was achieved in an alternative sol-gel route, as involved in 1 M acidic solution: HCl-tetrahydrofuran (HCl-THF), HNO3-tetrahydrofuran (HNO3-THF), and ClHNO2-tetrahydrofuran (ClHNO2-THF) solution. Resultant TiO2 nanoparticle was further investigated in a systematic analytical approach. Nanoscale TiO2 structure was observed at a moderate hydrolysis ratio (). Particle size range was much narrower in an aprotic HNO3-THF medium, as compared to a differential HCl-THF medium. Biphasic TiO2 structure was detected at a certain hydrolysis ratio (). Even so, relative anatase content was rather insignificant in an aprotic HCl-THF medium, as compared to a differential HNO3-THF medium. Tetragonal TiO2 structure was observed in the entire hydrolysis ratio (). Interstitial lattice defect was evident in an aprotic HNO3-THF medium but absent in a differential ClHNO2-THF medium.