Histopathologic Patterns of Ovarian Tumors in Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Southern EthiopiaRead the full article
Journal of Oncology publishes research related to breast cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, skin cancer, head and neck cancer, paediatric oncology, neurooncology as well as genitourinary cancer.
Chief Editor, Professor Bruno Vincenzi, is an Associate Professor of Medical Oncology at University Campus Bio-Medico, Italy. His research interests include urogenital neoplasms and the pathophysiology and treatment of bone metastases.
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miR-21 Targets ASPP2 to Inhibit Apoptosis via CHOP-Mediated Signaling in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Gastric Cancer Cells
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection affects cell survival pathways, including apoptosis and proliferation in host cells, and disruption of this balance is the key event in the development of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer (HPGC). H. pylori infection induces alterations in microRNAs expression that may be involved in GC development. Bioinformatic analysis showed that microRNA-21 (miR-21) is significantly upregulated in HPGC. Furthermore, quantitative proteomics and in silico prediction were employed to identify potential targets of miR-21. Following functional enrichment and clustered interaction network analyses, five candidates of miR-21 targets, PDCD4, ASPP2, DAXX, PIK3R1, and MAP3K1, were found across three functional clusters in association with cell death and survival, cellular movement, and cellular growth and proliferation. ASPP2 is inhibited by H. pylori-induced miR-21 overexpression. Moreover, ASPP2 levels are inversely correlated with miR-21 levels in HPGC tumor tissues. Thus, ASPP2 was identified as a miR-21 target in HPGC. Here, we observed that H. pylori-induced ASPP2 suppression enhances resistance to apoptosis in GC cells using apoptosis assays. Using protein interaction network and coimmunoprecipitation assay, we identified CHOP as a direct mediator of the ASPP2 proapoptotic activity in H. pylori-infected GC cells. Mechanistically, ASPP2 suppression promotes p300-mediated CHOP degradation, in turn inhibiting CHOP-mediated transcription of Noxa, Bak, and suppression of Bcl-2 to enact antiapoptosis in the GC cells after H. pylori infection. Clinicopathological analysis revealed correlations between decreased ASPP2 expression and higher HPGC risk and poor prognosis. In summary, the discovery of H. pylori-induced antiapoptosis via miR-21-mediated suppression of ASPP2/CHOP-mediated signaling provides a novel perspective for developing HPGC management and treatment.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 11 Enables Tumor Cell Immune Escape by Promoting T Cell Exhaustion and Predicts Poor Prognosis in Patients with Lung Adenocarcinoma
Fibroblast growth factor 11 (FGF11) accelerates tumor proliferation in a variety of cancer types. This study aimed to examine the link between FGF11 and the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma. FGF11 was searched in the Tumor Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and ImmProt databases. The link between FGF11 and lung cancer clinical data was investigated using TCGA and Kaplan–Meier (KM)-plotter databases, and we developed a prediction model. Putative mechanisms of action were investigated using Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG enrichment analyses. The GeneMANIA and STRING databases were used to search for genes that interact with FGF11, and the Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER) database was used to discover connections between FGF11 and immune cells, as well as any correlations with immune-related genes. We found that FGF11 expression was higher in the lung adenocarcinoma tissue than in the paracancerous tissue, and patients with high FGF11 expression had a lower overall survival, progression-free survival, and disease specific survival rate than those with low FGF11 expression. The expression of FGF11 was inversely linked to six types of infiltrating immune cells in the TIMER database and was associated with EGFR, VEGFA, BRAF, and MET expressions. The FGF11 gene is negatively correlated with the expression of most immune cells, mainly with various functional T cells including Th1, Th1-like, Treg, and Resting Treg characterization genes. These results indicate that FGF11 has the potential to be a new lung adenocarcinoma biomarker. It increases tumor cell immune escape by boosting T cell exhaustion in the tumor microenvironment, contributing to the poor prognosis of the patients with lung adenocarcinoma. These results provide incentive to further research FGF11 as a possible biomarker and drug target for patients with lung adenocarcinoma.
Increased Expression of SRSF1 Predicts Poor Prognosis in Multiple Myeloma
Background. Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal plasma cell disorder which still lacks sufficient prognostic factors. The serine/arginine-rich splicing factor (SRSF) family serves as an important splicing regulator in organ development. Among all members, SRSF1 plays an important role in cell proliferation and renewal. However, the role of SRSF1 in MM is still unknown. Methods. SRSF1 was selected from the primary bioinformatics analysis of SRSF family members, and then we integrated 11 independent datasets and analyzed the relationship between SRSF1 expression and MM clinical characteristics. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was conducted to explore the potential mechanism of SRSF1 in MM progression. ImmuCellAI was used to estimate the abundance of immune infiltrating cells between the SRSF1high and SRSF1low groups. The ESTIMATE algorithm was used to evaluate the tumor microenvironment in MM. The expression of immune-related genes was compared between the groups. Additionally, SRSF1 expression was validated in clinical samples. SRSF1 knockdown was conducted to explore the role of SRSF1 in MM development. Results. SRSF1 expression showed an increasing trend with the progression of myeloma. Besides, SRSF1 expression increased as the age, ISS stage, 1q21 amplification level, and relapse times increased. MM patients with higher SRSF1 expression had worse clinical features and poorer outcomes. Univariate and multivariate analysis indicated that upregulated SRSF1 expression was an independent poor prognostic factor for MM. Enrichment pathway analysis confirmed that SRSF1 takes part in the myeloma progression via tumor-associated and immune-related pathways. Several checkpoints and immune-activating genes were significantly downregulated in the SRSF1high groups. Furthermore, we detected that SRSF1 expression was significantly higher in MM patients than that in control donors. SRSF1 knockdown resulted in proliferation arrest in MM cell lines. Conclusion. The expression value of SRSF1 is positively associated with myeloma progression, and high SRSF1 expression might be a poor prognostic biomarker in MM patients.
HKDC1 Silencing Inhibits Proliferation and Glycolysis of Gastric Cancer Cells
Gastric cancer (GC) is the third most lethal and fifth most common cancer in the world. In a variety of cancers, the hexokinase domain component 1 (HKDC1) is carcinogenic. This study was to investigate into how HKDC1 contributes to the development and progression of GC. Three different datasets (GSE103236, GSE13861, and GSE55696) were extracted from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and then analyzed using the sva package. The R software was used to identify 411 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the pooled dataset. We discovered 326 glycolysis-related genes (glyGenes) in the cancer genome atlas-stomach adenocarcinoma (TCGA-STAD) cohort using gene set enrichment analysis set (GSEA). HKDC1 is one of the most prevalent glyGenes in GC tumor tissues and cells, as seen in the Venn diagram. According to the results of the Cell Count Kit-8 assay, the proliferation of AGS and MKN-45 cells decreased when HKDC1 was knocked down. Lack of HKDC1 in cells enhanced oxygen consumption and decreased glycolytic protein expression while suppressing glucose absorption, lactate production, ATP level, and extracellular acidification ratio. As an oncogene in gastric cancer development, HKDC1 influences cell proliferation and glycolysis.
Insights into the Oncogenic, Prognostic, and Immunological Role of BRIP1 in Pan-Cancer: A Comprehensive Data-Mining-Based Study
Background. BRCA1 interacting helicase 1 (BRIP1), an ATP-dependent DNA helicase which belongs to an Iron-Sulfur (Fe-S) helicase cluster family with a DEAH domain, plays a key role in DNA damage and repair, Fanconi anemia, and development of several cancers including breast and ovarian cancer. However, its role in pan-cancer remains largely unknown. Methods. BRIP1 expression data of tumor and normal tissues were downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas, Genotype-Tissue Expression, and Human Protein Atlas databases. Correlation between BRIP1 and prognosis, genomic alterations, and copy number variation (CNV) as well as methylation in pan-cancer were further analyzed. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) and gene set enrichment and variation analysis (GSEA and GSVA) were performed to identify the potential pathways and functions of BRIP1. Besides, BRIP1 correlations with tumor microenvironment (TME), immune infiltration, immune-related genes, tumor mutation burden (TMB), microsatellite instability (MSI), and immunotherapy as well as antitumor drugs were explored in pan-cancer. Results. Differential analyses showed an increased expression of BRIP1 in 28 cancer types and its aberrant expression could be an indicator for prognosis in most cancers. Among the various mutation types of BRIP1 in pan-cancer, amplification was the most common type. BRIP1 expression had a significant correlation with CNV and DNA methylation in 23 tumor types and 16 tumor types, respectively. PPI, GSEA, and GSVA results validated the association between BRIP1 and DNA damage and repair, cell cycle, and metabolism. In addition, the expression of BRIP1 and its correlation with TME, immune-infiltrating cells, immune-related genes, TMB, and MSI as well as a variety of antitumor drugs and immunotherapy were confirmed. Conclusions. Our study indicates that BRIP1 plays an imperative role in the tumorigenesis and immunity of various tumors. It may not only serve as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker but also can be a predictor for drug sensitivity and immunoreaction during antitumor treatment in pan-cancer.
SH3BGRL Suppresses Liver Tumor Progression through Enhanced ATG5-Dependent Autophagy
SH3BGRL, an adaptor protein, is upregulated in breast cancers and indicates its tumorigenic role. But the function of SH3BGRL in other types of cancers is largely unknown. Here, we modulate SH3BGRL expression level in two liver cancer cells and conduct both in vitro and in vivo analyses of SH3BGRL in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Results demonstrate that SH3BGRL notably inhibits cell proliferation and arrests the cell cycle in both LO2 and HepG2 cells. Molecularly, SH3BGRL upregulates the expression of ATG5 from proteasome degradation as well as the inhibitions of Src activation and its downstream ERK and AKT signaling pathways, which eventually enhance autophagic cell death. The xenograft mouse model reveals that SH3BGRL overexpression can efficiently suppress tumorigenesis in vivo, while the additional silencing ATG5 in SH3BGRL-overexpressing cells attenuates the inhibitory effect of SH3BGRL on both hepatic tumor cell proliferation and tumorigenicity in vivo. The relevance of SH3BGRL downregulation in liver cancers and their progression is validated based on the large-scale tumor data. Taken together, our results clarify the suppressive role of SH3BGRL in tumorigenesis of liver cancer, which would be of help to the diagnosis of liver cancer, while either promoting the autophagy of liver cancer cells or inhibiting the downstream signaling induced from SH3BGRL downregulation would be a promising therapy.