Antitumorigenic Effects of Inhibiting Ephrin Receptor Kinase Signaling by GLPG1790 against Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines In Vitro and In VivoRead the full article
Journal of Oncology publishes research related to breast cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, skin cancer, head and neck cancer, paediatric oncology, neurooncology as well as genitourinary cancer.
Journal of Oncology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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The Dual Role of the Liver in Nanomedicine as an Actor in the Elimination of Nanostructures or a Therapeutic Target
The development of nanostructures for therapeutic purpose is rapidly growing, following the results obtained in vivo in animal models and in the clinical trials. Unfortunately, the potential therapeutic efficacy is not completely exploited, yet. This is mainly due to the fast clearance of the nanostructures in the body. Nanoparticles and the liver have a unique interaction because the liver represents one of the major barriers for drug delivery. This interaction becomes even more relevant and complex when the drug delivery strategies employing nanostructures are proposed for the therapy of liver diseases, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this case, the selective delivery of therapeutic nanoparticles to the tumor microenvironment collides with the tendency of nanostructures to be quickly eliminated by the organ. The design of a new therapeutic approach based on nanoparticles to treat HCC has to particularly take into consideration passive and active mechanisms to avoid or delay liver elimination and to specifically address cancer cells or the cancer microenvironment. This review will analyze the different aspects concerning the dual role of the liver, both as an organ carrying out a clearance activity for the nanostructures and as target for therapeutic strategies for HCC treatment.
FAM64A Promotes Osteosarcoma Cell Growth and Metastasis and Is Mediated by miR-493
Aberrant expression of FAM64A was correlated with cell proliferation in various cancer types. We examined the expression of FAM64A and the upstream gene miR-493 in OS. The functions of miR-493 were revealed through extensive experiments. We found an increase of FAM64A gene and protein in OS tissues. Overexpression of FAM64A resulted in promoting tumor proliferation, migration, and invasion. The miR-493 targeted and negatively regulated FAM64A. Our data showed that upregulation of FAM64A in OS correlated with poor prognosis.
Patterns of Anthracycline-Based Chemotherapy-Induced Adverse Drug Reactions and Their Impact on Relative Dose Intensity among Women with Breast Cancer in Ethiopia: A Prospective Observational Study
Background. The breast cancer chemotherapy leads to diverse aspects of noxious or unintended adverse drug reactions (ADRs) that cause the relative dose intensity (RDI) reduced to below optimal (i.e., if the percentage of actual dose received per unit time divided by planned dose per unit time is less than 85%). Hence, this prospective observational study was conducted to evaluate chemotherapy-induced ADRs and their impact on relative dose intensity among women with breast cancer in Ethiopia. Methods. The study was conducted with a cohort of 146 patients from January 1 to September 30, 2017, Gregorian Calendar (GC) at the only nationwide oncology center, Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The ADRs of the chemotherapy were collected using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) (version 4.03). The patients were personally interviewed for subjective toxicities, and laboratory results and supportive measures were recorded at each cycle. SPSS version 22 was used for analysis. Results. Grade 3 neutropenia (23 (15.8%)) was the most frequently reported ADR among grade 3 hematological toxicity on cycle 4. However, overall grade fatigue (136 (93.2%)) and grade 3 nausea (31 (21.2%)) were the most frequently reported nonhematological toxicities on cycle 1. The majority of ADRs were reported during the first four cycles except for peripheral neuropathy. Oral antibiotics and G-CSF use (17 (11.6%)) and treatment delay (31 (21.2%)) were frequently reported on cycle 3. Overall, 61 (41.8%) and 42 (28.8%) of study participants experienced dose delay and used G-CSF, respectively, at least once during their enrollment. Of the 933 interventions observed, 95 (10%) cycles were delayed due to toxicities in which neutropenia attributed to the delay of 89 cycles. Forty-four (30.1%) of the patients received overall RDI < 85%. Pretreatment hematological counts were significant predictors () for the incidence of first cycle hematological toxicities such as neutropenia, anemia, and leukopenia and nonhematological toxicities like vomiting. Conclusion. Ethiopian women with breast cancer on anthracycline-based AC and AC-T chemotherapy predominantly experienced grade 1 to 3 hematological and nonhematological ADRs, particularly during the first four cycles. Neutropenia was the only toxicity that led to RDI < 85%. Thus, enhancing the utilization of G-CSF and other supportive measures will improve RDI to above 85%.
Th17 Cells and IL-17 As Novel Immune Targets in Ovarian Cancer Therapy
Ovarian cancer (OC) is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage and is related with poor prognosis. Despite numerous studies, the pathogenesis of OC is still unknown. Recent studies indicate the role of the immune system in the development and spread of OC. The identification of factors and mechanisms involved in that process and their modulation is crucial for creating effective antitumor therapy. We investigated the potential role of Th17 cells in OC patients (n = 71) by analyzing the frequencies of Th17 cells in three different environments, i.e., peripheral blood (PB), peritoneal fluid (PF), and tissue (Th17 infiltrating cells), and the concentration of IL-17A in plasma and PF of patients in terms of their clinical and prognostic significance. Th17 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry as a percentage of CD4+ lymphocytes that expressed intracellular expression of IL-17A. The level of IL-17A in plasma and PF were determined by ELISA. Our results showed accumulation of Th17 cells among tumor-infiltrating CD4+ lymphocytes ( in relation to PB). Moreover, the percentage of Th17 cells in both PB and PF of OC patients was significantly lower than that in benign tumors group (n = 35). There were no significant differences in the percentage of Th17 cells in PB, PF, and tissue in relation to clinicopathological characteristics of OC patients and survival. The lower percentage of Th17 cells in the PB and PF of OC patients may promote evasion of host immune response by cancer cells. The concentration of IL-17A in plasma of OC patients was higher () than that in both benign tumors and control group (n = 10). The PF IL-17A level in OC patients was higher () than that in women with benign ovarian tumors, indicating its synthesis in OC microenvironment. Higher IL-17A level in PF is correlated with longer (median: 36.5 vs. 27 months) survival of OC patients.
The Application of Gail Model to Predict the Risk of Developing Breast Cancer among Jordanian Women
Background and Objectives. Breast cancer has been the most common cancer affecting women in Jordan. In the process of implementing breast cancer prevention and early detection programs, individualized risk assessment can add to the cost-effectiveness of such interventions. Gail model is a widely used tool to stratify patients into different risk categories. However, concerns about its applicability across different ethnic groups do exist. In this study, we report our experience with the application of a modified version of this model among Jordanian women. Methods. The Gail risk assessment model (RAM) was modified and used to calculate the 5-year and lifetime risk for breast cancer. Patients with known breast cancer were used to test this model. Medical records and hospital database were utilized to collect information on known risk factors. The mean calculated risk score for women tested was 0.65. This number, which corresponds to the Gail original score of 1.66, was used as a cutoff point to categorize patients as high risk. Results. A total of 1786 breast cancer patients with a mean age of 50 (range: 19–93) years were included. The modified version of the Gail RAM was applied on 1213 patients aged 35–59.9 years. The mean estimated risk for developing invasive breast cancer over the following five years was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.52, 0.56), and the lifetime risk was 3.42 (95% CI: 3.30, 3.53). Only 210 (17.3%) women had a risk score >0.65 and thus categorized as high risk. First-degree family history of breast cancer was identified among 120 (57.1%) patients in this high-risk group. Conclusions. Among a group of patients with an established diagnosis of breast cancer, a modified Gail risk assessment model would have been able to stratify only 17% into the high-risk category. The family history of breast cancer contributed the most to the risk score.
Correlation between FAK and EGF-Induced EMT in Colorectal Cancer Cells
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer, which is mediated by FAK and EGF. However, whether FAK participates in EMT in colorectal cancer cells through the EGF/EGFR signaling pathway remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effector mechanisms of FAK in the process of EGF-induced EMT in colorectal cancer cells and to determine whether miR-217 is involved in this process. Caco-2 cancer cells were routinely cultured with and without treatment with 100 ng/mL EGF, and changes in cell morphology were observed using an inverted microscope. In addition, a transwell assay was used to detect cell migration under the condition of EGF treatment. The expression of FAK, pFAK, E-cadherin, vimentin, and β actin was assessed by western blotting, and the expression of miR-217 was assessed using real-time PCR. We found that EGF induced EMT in colorectal cancer cells and enhanced cell migration and invasion ability. Moreover, FAK was involved in the EGF-induced EMT of colorectal cancer cells. EGF upregulated the expression of E-cadherin in colorectal cancer cells by activating FAK, and miR-217 was found to participate in EGF-induced EMT in colorectal cancer cells. Our findings indicate that EGF induces EMT in colorectal cancer cells by activating FAK, and miR-217 is involved in the EGF/FAK/E-cadherin signaling pathway.