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Figure 4: Validation by immunohistochemistry. (a)-(b), p130cas: Immunostaining for p130cas in a primary carcinoma (a) and pleural effusion (b) showing cytoplasmic staining in tumor cells. (c)–(f), p-Ezrin: Immunostaining for p-Ezrin in a primary carcinoma (c), pleural effusion from the same patient (d), and 2 additional effusions obtained from the pericardial (e) and pleural (f) cavity. Tumor cells in the primary carcinoma are p-Ezrin-negative, whereas cells in all three effusions are stained at the membrane. (g)–(i), claudin-4: immunostaining for Claudin-4 in a primary carcinoma (g), pleural effusion from the same patient (h), and an additional effusion obtained from the pericardial cavity (i, same specimen as in e). Tumor cells in the primary carcinoma are Claudin-4 -negative, whereas cells in the two effusions are stained at the membrane.