Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Oncology
Volume 2011, Article ID 542358, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/542358
Review Article

Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer: A Review of Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Treatment

1Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26508, USA
2Ellis Fischel Cancer Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65203, USA
3Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
4Graduate Program in Clinical Investigation, MGH Institute of Health Professions, 36 1st Avenue, Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, MA 02129, USA

Received 25 February 2011; Accepted 3 April 2011

Academic Editor: V. Valentini

Copyright © 2011 Govardhanan Nagaiah et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. B. Ain, “Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a therapeutic challenge,” Seminars in Surgical Oncology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 64–69, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. P. Burke, I. D. Hay, F. Dignan et al., “Long-term trends in thyroid carcinoma: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1935–1999,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 753–758, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. G. Demeter, S. A. De Jong, A. M. Lawrence, and E. Paloyan, “Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: risk factors and outcome,” Surgery, vol. 110, no. 6, pp. 956–963, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. M. Goldman, E. N. Goren, M. H. Cohen, B. L. Webber, M. F. Brennan, and J. Robbins, “Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: long-term survival after radical surgery,” Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 389–394, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  5. T. Hadar, C. Mor, J. Shvero, R. Levy, and K. Segal, “Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 511–516, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. I. Haigh, P. H. Ituarte, H. S. Wu et al., “Completely resected anaplastic thyroid carcinoma combined with adjuvant chemotherapy and irradiation is associated with prolonged survival,” Cancer, vol. 91, no. 12, pp. 2335–2342, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. A. Hundahl, B. Cady, M. P. Cunningham et al., “Initial results from a prospective cohort study of 5583 cases of thyroid carcinoma treated in the united states during 1996. U.S. and German Thyroid Cancer Study Group. An American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer Patient Care Evaluation study,” Cancer, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 202–217, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  8. S. A. Hundahl, I. D. Fleming, A. M. Fremgen, and H. R. Menck, “A National Cancer Data Base report on 53,856 cases of thyroid carcinoma treated in the U.S., 1985–1995,” Cancer, vol. 83, no. 12, pp. 2638–2648, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. B. Jereb, J. Stjernsward, and T. Lowhagen, “Anaplastic giant cell carcinoma of the thyroid. A study of treatment and prognosis,” Cancer, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1293–1295, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. J. Junor, J. Paul, and N. S. Reed, “Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: 91 patients treated by surgery and radiotherapy,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 83–88, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. Kebebew, F. S. Greenspan, O. H. Clark, K. A. Woeber, and A. McMillan, “Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: treatment outcome and prognostic factors,” Cancer, vol. 103, no. 7, pp. 1330–1335, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. J. H. Kim and R. D. Leeper, “Treatment of locally advanced thyroid carcinoma with combination doxorubicin and radiation therapy,” Cancer, vol. 60, no. 10, pp. 2372–2375, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. H. Kim and R. D. Leeper, “Combination adriamycin and radiation therapy for locally advanced carcinoma of the thyroid gland,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 565–567, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Kurebayashi, S. Okubo, Y. Yamamoto et al., “Additive antitumor effects of gefitinib and imatinib on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells,” Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 460–470, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. K. Y. Lam, C. Y. Lo, K. W. Chan, and K. Y. Wan, “Insular and anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: a 45-year comparative study at a single institution and a review of the significance of p53 and p21,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 231, no. 3, pp. 329–338, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. G. Mitchell, R. Huddart, and C. Harmer, “Phase II evaluation of high dose accelerated radiotherapy for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma,” Radiotherapy and Oncology, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 33–38, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. J. Nel, J. A. van Heerden, J. R. Goellner et al., “Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: a clinicopathologic study of 82 cases,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 51–58, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  18. O. Nilsson, J. Lindeberg, J. Zedenius et al., “Anaplastic giant cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland: treatment and survival over a 25-year period,” World Journal of Surgery, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 725–730, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Schlumberger, C. Parmentier, M. J. Delisle, J. E. Couette, J. P. Droz, and D. Sarrazin, “Combination therapy for anaplastic giant cell thyroid carcinoma,” Cancer, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 564–566, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. W. J. Simpson, “Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a new approach,” Canadian Journal of Surgery, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 25–27, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. R. Spires, M. R. Schwartz, and R. H. Miller, “Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Association with differentiated thyroid cancer,” Archives of Otolaryngology, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 40–44, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. Tallroth, G. Wallin, G. Lundell, T. Lowhagen, and J. Einhorn, “Multimodality treatment in anaplastic giant cell thyroid carcinoma,” Cancer, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 1428–1431, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. K. Tan, R. K. Finley III, D. Driscoll, V. Bakamjian, W. L. Hicks Jr., and D. P. Shedd, “Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: a 24-year experience,” Head & Neck, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 41–48, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. S. Venkatesh, N. G. Ordonez, P. N. Schultz, R. C. Hickey, H. Goepfert, and N. A. Samaan, “Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid. A clinicopathologic study of 121 cases,” Cancer, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 321–330, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. E. Voutilainen, M. Multanen, R. K. Haapiainen, A. K. Leppaniemi, and A. H. Sivula, “Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma survival,” World Journal of Surgery, vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 975–978, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Are and A. R. Shaha, “Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: biology, pathogenesis, prognostic factors, and treatment approaches,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 453–464, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. B. McIver, I. D. Hay, D. F. Giuffrida et al., “Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: a 50-year experience at a single institution,” Surgery, vol. 130, no. 6, pp. 1028–1034, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. A. Jemal, R. Siegel, E. Ward, T. Murray, J. Xu, and M. J. Thun, “Cancer statistics, 2007,” CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 43–66, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. L. Davies and H. G. Welch, “Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the United States, 1973–2002,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 295, no. 18, pp. 2164–2167, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. A. T. Swaak-Kragten, J. H. de Wilt, P. I. Schmitz, M. Bontenbal, and P. C. Levendag, “Multimodality treatment for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma—treatment outcome in 75 patients,” Radiotherapy and Oncology, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 100–104, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  31. S. Vrbic, I. Pejcic, M. Vrbic, and S. Filipovic, “Therapy of stage IV B anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: single institution experience,” Journal of Balkan Union of Oncology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 41–44, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  32. T. Yau, C. Y. Lo, R. J. Epstein, A. K. Lam, K. Y. Wan, and B. H. Lang, “Treatment outcomes in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: survival improvement in young patients with localized disease treated by combination of surgery and radiotherapy,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 2500–2505, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  33. S. Lim, N. Lee, M. G. Fury et al., “Doxorubucin and concurrent radiotherapy for anaplastic thyroid cancer: we need to do better,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 25, no. 18S, abstract 735, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  34. Y. Lee, J. Jung, H. Hwang, and Y. Im, “Multimodal therapeutic approach in anaplastic thyroid cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 24, supplement, article 15533, no. 18S, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  35. Y. Wang, R. Tsang, S. Asa, B. Dickson, T. Arenovich, and J. Brierley, “Clinical outcome of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma treated with radiotherapy of once- and twice-daily fractionation regimens,” Cancer, vol. 107, no. 8, pp. 1786–1792, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  36. M. J. Veness, G. S. Porter, and G. J. Morgan, “Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: dismal outcome despite current treatment approach,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery, vol. 74, no. 7, pp. 559–562, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  37. N. Besic, M. Auersperg, M. Us-Krasovec, R. Golouh, S. Frkovic-Grazio, and A. Vodnik, “Effect of primary treatment on survival in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 260–264, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  38. K. Sugino, K. Ito, T. Mimura et al., “The important role of operations in the management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma,” Surgery, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 245–248, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. D. E. Heron, S. Karimpour, and P. W. Grigsby, “Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: comparison of conventional radiotherapy and hyperfractionation chemoradiotherapy in two groups,” American Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 442–446, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. J. Tennvall, G. Lundell, A. Hallquist, P. Wahlberg, G. Wallin, and S. Tibblin, “Combined doxorubicin, hyperfractionated radiotherapy, and surgery in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Report on two protocols. The Swedish Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Group,” Cancer, vol. 74, no. 4, pp. 1348–1354, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  41. P. C. Levendag, P. M. De Porre, and W. L. van Putten, “Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid gland treated by radiation therapy,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 125–128, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  42. S. Agrawal, R. S. Rao, D. M. Parikh, H. K. Parikh, A. M. Borges, and M. B. Sampat, “Histologic trends in thyroid cancer 1969–1993: a clinico-pathologic analysis of the relative proportion of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid,” Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 251–255, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. P. Lampertico, “Anaplastic (sarcomatoid) carcinoma of the thyroid gland,” Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 159–168, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  44. P. Trimboli, S. Ulisse, F. M. Graziano et al., “Trend in thyroid carcinoma size, age at diagnosis, and histology in a retrospective study of 500 cases diagnosed over 20 years,” Thyroid, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1151–1155, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  45. H. Ezaki, S. Ebihara, Y. Fujimoto et al., “Analysis of thyroid carcinoma based on material registered in Japan during 1977–1986 with special reference to predominance of papillary type,” Cancer, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 808–814, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. W. Kitagawa, K. Shimizu, H. Akasu, and S. Tanaka, “Endocrine surgery. The ninth report: the latest data on and clinical characteristics of the epidemiology of thyroid carcinoma,” Journal of Nippon Medical School, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 57–61, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  47. P. C. Ratnatunga, S. C. Amarasinghe, and N. V. Ratnatunga, “Changing patterns of thyroid cancer in Sri Lanka. Has the iodination programme helped?” The Ceylon Medical Journal, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 125–128, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  48. R. M. Reynolds, J. Weir, D. L. Stockton, D. H. Brewster, T. C. Sandeep, and M. W. Strachan, “Changing trends in incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in Scotland,” Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 156–162, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  49. F. Bakiri, F. K. Djemli, L. A. Mokrane, and F. K. Djidel, “The relative roles of endemic goiter and socioeconomic development status in the prognosis of thyroid carcinoma,” Cancer, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 1146–1153, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. N. Besic, M. Hocevar, and J. Zgajnar, “Lower incidence of anaplastic carcinoma after higher iodination of salt in slovenia,” Thyroid, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 623–626, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  51. J. Chen, J. D. Tward, D. C. Shrieve, and Y. J. Hitchcock, “Surgery and radiotherapy improves survival in patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: analysis of the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results 1983–2002,” American Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 460–464, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  52. F. D. Gilliland, W. C. Hunt, D. M. Morris, and C. R. Key, “Prognostic factors for thyroid carcinoma. A population-based study of 15,698 cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program 1973–1991,” Cancer, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 564–573, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. C. Y. Lo, K. Y. Lam, and K. Y. Wan, “Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid,” The American Journal of Surgery, vol. 177, no. 4, pp. 337–339, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  54. T. Y. Kim, K. W. Kim, T. S. Jung et al., “Prognostic factors for korean patients with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma,” Head & Neck, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 765–772, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  55. B. Roche, G. Larroumets, C. Dejax et al., “Epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment and prognosis of a regional series of 26 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC). Comparison with the literature,” Annales d'Endocrinologie, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 38–45, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  56. I. Sugitani, N. Kasai, Y. Fujimoto, and A. Yanagisawa, “Prognostic factors and therapeutic strategy for anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid,” World Journal of Surgery, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 617–622, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  57. N. Lee, D. R. Puri, A. I. Blanco, and K. S. Chao, “Intensity-modulated radiation therapy in head and neck cancers: an update,” Head & Neck, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 387–400, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  58. B. D. Rosenbluth, V. Serrano, L. Happersett et al., “Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for the treatment of nonanaplastic thyroid cancer,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 1419–1426, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  59. C. S. Wong, J. Van Dyk, and W. J. Simpson, “Myelopathy following hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma,” Radiotherapy and Oncology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 3–9, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. J. Tennvall, E. Tallroth, A. el Hassan et al., “Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Doxorubicin, hyperfractionated radiotherapy and surgery,” Acta Oncologica, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1025–1028, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  61. J. A. Sosa, R. Elisei, B. Jarzab et al., “Randomized phase 2/3 trial of a tunor vascular disrupting agent, fosbertubulin (CA4P), with carboplatin(C), and paclitaxel(P) in anaplastic thyroid cancer(ATC): interim safety and efficacy results of the FACT trial,” Milan, Italy, 2010.
  62. M. Troch, O. Koperek, C. Scheuba et al., “High efficacy of concomitant treatment of undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid cancer with radiation and docetaxel,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 95, no. 9, pp. E54–E57, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  63. C. J. Mooney, G. Nagaiah, P. Fu et al., “A phase II trial of fosbretabulin in advanced anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and correlation of baseline serum-soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 with outcome,” Thyroid, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 233–240, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  64. G. Nagaiah, P. Fu, J. K. Wasman et al., “Phase II trial of sorafenib (bay 43-9006) in patients with advanced anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid (ATC),” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 15S, supplement, 2009, abstract 6058. View at Google Scholar
  65. H. Koussis, A. Scola, S. Tonello et al., “Multimodality therapeutic approach in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC): study of 56 patients,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 24, no. 18S, supplement, 2006, ASCO Annual Meeting Proceedings Part I. Vol. 24. View at Google Scholar
  66. G. Wallin, G. Lundell, and J. Tennvall, “Anaplastic giant cell thyroid carcinoma,” Scandinavian Journal of Surgery, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 272–277, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  67. R. De Crevoisier, E. Baudin, A. Bachelot et al., “Combined treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with surgery, chemotherapy, and hyperfractionated accelerated external radiotherapy,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1137–1143, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  68. F. W. Mitchel, L. W. Suzanne, G. H. Andrew et al., “Hyperfractionated radiation therapy and adriamycin for anaplastic thyroid cancer,” Proceedings American Society of Clinical Oncology, vol. 21, abstract 931, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  69. K. B. Ain, M. J. Egorin, and P. A. DeSimone, “Treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with paclitaxel: phase 2 trial using ninety-six-hour infusion. Collaborative Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Health Intervention Trials (CATCHIT) Group,” Thyroid, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 587–594, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  70. B. Busnardo, O. Daniele, M. R. Pelizzo et al., “A multimodality therapeutic approach in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: study on 39 patients,” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 755–761, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  71. A. Bhatia, A. Rao, K. K. Ang et al., “Anaplastic thyroid cancer: clinical outcomes with conformal radiotherapy,” Head & Neck, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 829–836, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  72. J. Tennvall, G. Lundell, P. Wahlberg et al., “Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: three protocols combining doxorubicin, hyperfractionated radiotherapy and surgery,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 86, no. 12, pp. 1848–1853, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  73. M. Lehnert, “Clinical multidrug resistance in cancer: a multifactorial problem,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 912–920, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. S. Satake, I. Sugawara, M. Watanabe, and H. Takami, “Lack of a point mutation of human DNA topoisomerase II in multidrug-resistant anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines,” Cancer Letters, vol. 116, no. 1, pp. 33–39, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. S. Ahuja and H. Ernst, “Chemotherapy of thyroid carcinoma,” Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 303–310, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  76. K. Shimaoka, D. A. Schoenfeld, and W. D. DeWys, “A randomized trial of doxorubicin versus doxorubicin plus cisplatin in patients with advanced thyroid carcinoma,” Cancer, vol. 56, no. 9, pp. 2155–2160, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  77. M. G. Catalano, N. Fortunati, M. Pugliese et al., “Valproic acid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances sensitivity to doxorubicin in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 191, no. 2, pp. 465–472, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. T. Higashiyama, Y. Ito, M. Hirokawa et al., “Induction chemotherapy with weekly paclitaxel administration for anaplastic thyroid carcinoma,” Thyroid, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 7–14, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  79. K. Kawada, K. Kitagawa, S. Kamei et al., “The feasibility study of docetaxel in patients with anaplastic thyroid cancer,” Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 596–599, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  80. S. C. Yeung, G. Xu, J. Pan, M. Christgen, and A. Bamiagis, “Manumycin enhances the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel on anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 650–656, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  81. W. Voigt, T. Kegel, M. Weiss, T. Mueller, H. Simon, and H. J. Schmoll, “Potential activity of paclitaxel, vinorelbine and gemcitabine in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma,” Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, vol. 131, no. 9, pp. 585–590, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  82. M. Sokal and C. L. Harmer, “Chemotherapy for anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid,” Clinical Oncology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 3–10, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  83. M. V. Blagosklonny, P. Giannakakou, M. Wojtowicz et al., “Effects of p53-expressing adenovirus on the chemosensitivity and differentiation of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 83, no. 7, pp. 2516–2522, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. R. Kotchetkov, J. Cinatl, A. A. Krivtchik et al., “Selective activity of BS-RNase against anaplastic thyroid cancer,” Anticancer Research, vol. 21, no. 2A, pp. 1035–1042, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  85. A. Franzen and N. E. Heldin, “BMP-7-induced cell cycle arrest of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells via p21(CIP1) and p27(KIP1),” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 285, no. 3, pp. 773–781, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  86. B. A. Schiff, A. B. McMurphy, S. A. Jasser et al., “Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in anaplastic thyroid cancer, and the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib inhibits the growth of anaplastic thyroid cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 10, no. 24, pp. 8594–8602, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  87. S. Kim, C. N. Prichard, M. N. Younes et al., “Cetuximab and irinotecan interact synergistically to inhibit the growth of orthotopic anaplastic thyroid carcinoma xenografts in nude mice,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 600–607, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  88. S. Kim, B. A. Schiff, O. G. Yigitbasi et al., “Targeted molecular therapy of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with AEE788,” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 632–640, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  89. F. Furuya, H. Shimura, H. Suzuki et al., “Histone deacetylase inhibitors restore radioiodide uptake and retention in poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancer cells by expression of the sodium/iodide symporter thyroperoxidase and thyroglobulin,” Endocrinology, vol. 145, no. 6, pp. 2865–2875, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  90. R. Imanishi, A. Ohtsuru, M. Iwamatsu et al., “A histone deacetylase inhibitor enhances killing of undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma cells by p53 gene therapy,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 87, no. 10, pp. 4821–4824, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  91. C. S. Mitsiades, V. Poulaki, C. McMullan et al., “Novel histone deacetylase inhibitors in the treatment of thyroid cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 3958–3965, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  92. R. W. Alfano, S. H. Leppla, S. Liu et al., “Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by the matrix metalloproteinase-activated anthrax lethal toxin in an orthotopic model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma,” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 190–201, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  93. A. Podtcheko, A. Ohtsuru, H. Namba et al., “Inhibition of ABL tyrosine kinase potentiates radiation-induced terminal growth arrest in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells,” Radiation Research, vol. 165, no. 1, pp. 35–42, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  94. A. Podtcheko, A. Ohtsuru, S. Tsuda et al., “The selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, STI571, inhibits growth of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 1889–1896, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. J. M. Dziba and K. B. Ain, “Imatinib mesylate (gleevec; STI571) monotherapy is ineffective in suppressing human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell growth in vitro,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 2127–2135, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. S. Kim, Y. D. Yazici, G. Calzada et al., “Sorafenib inhibits the angiogenesis and growth of orthotopic anaplastic thyroid carcinoma xenografts in nude mice,” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1785–1792, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  97. V. Gupta-Abramson, A. B. Troxel, A. Nellore et al., “Phase II trial of sorafenib in advanced thyroid cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 29, pp. 4714–4719, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  98. T. Inai, M. Mancuso, H. Hashizume et al., “Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling in cancer causes loss of endothelial fenestrations, regression of tumor vessels, and appearance of basement membrane ghosts,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 165, no. 1, pp. 35–52, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  99. E. E. Cohen, L. S. Rosen, E. E. Vokes et al., “Axitinib is an active treatment for all histologic subtypes of advanced thyroid cancer: results from a phase II study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 29, pp. 4708–4713, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  100. G. G. Dark, S. A. Hill, V. E. Prise, G. M. Tozer, G. R. Pettit, and D. J. Chaplin, “Combretastatin A-4, an agent that displays potent and selective toxicity toward tumor vasculature,” Cancer Research, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 1829–1834, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  101. L. Vincent, P. Kermani, L. M. Young et al., “Combretastatin A4 phosphate induces rapid regression of tumor neovessels and growth through interference with vascular endothelial-cadherin signaling,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 115, no. 11, pp. 2992–3006, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  102. G. R. Pettit, S. B. Singh, E. Hamel, C. M. Lin, D. S. Alberts, and D. Garcia-Kendall, “Isolation and structure of the strong cell growth and tubulin inhibitor combretastatin A-4,” Experientia, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 209–211, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  103. K. Grosios, P. M. Loadman, D. J. Swaine, G. R. Pettit, and M. C. Bibby, “Combination chemotherapy with combretastatin A-4 phosphate and 5-fluorouracil in an experimental murine colon adenocarcinoma,” Anticancer Research, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 229–233, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  104. R. Murata, D. W. Siemann, J. Overgaard, and M. R. Horsman, “Interaction between combretastatin A-4 disodium phosphate and radiation in murine tumors,” Radiotherapy and Oncology, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 155–161, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  105. L. Barzon, M. Pacenti, A. Taccaliti et al., “A pilot study of combined suicide/cytokine gene therapy in two patients with end-stage anaplastic thyroid carcinoma,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 2831–2834, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  106. M. K. Pathak and T. Yi, “Sodium stibogluconate is a potent inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases and augments cytokine responses in hemopoietic cell lines,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 167, no. 6, pp. 3391–3397, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  107. S. F. Lin, Z. Yu, C. Riedl et al., “Treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in vitro with a mutant vaccinia virus,” Surgery, vol. 142, no. 6, pp. 976–983, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  108. G. P. Yu, J. C. Li, D. Branovan, S. McCormick, and S. P. Schantz, “Thyroid cancer incidence and survival in the national cancer institute surveillance, epidemiology, and end results race/ethnicity groups,” Thyroid, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 465–473, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed