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Journal of Oncology
Volume 2012, Article ID 289315, 11 pages
Review Article

Role of Protein Biomarkers in the Detection of High-Grade Disease in Cervical Cancer Screening Programs

1BD Diagnostics, Women's Health and Cancer, Durham, North Carolina, USA
2Laboratory for Clinical and Molecular Pathology (RIATOL), Sonic Healthcare Benelux, Antwerp, Belgium
3AMBIOR, Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
4AZ Jan Palfijn, Antwerp, Belgium

Received 30 September 2011; Accepted 10 November 2011

Academic Editor: Adhemar Longatto-Filho

Copyright © 2012 Charlotte A. Brown et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Since the Pap test was introduced in the 1940s, there has been an approximately 70% reduction in the incidence of squamous cell cervical cancers in many developed countries by the application of organized and opportunistic screening programs. The efficacy of the Pap test, however, is hampered by high interobserver variability and high false-negative and false-positive rates. The use of biomarkers has demonstrated the ability to overcome these issues, leading to improved positive predictive value of cervical screening results. In addition, the introduction of HPV primary screening programs will necessitate the use of a follow-up test with high specificity to triage the high number of HPV-positive tests. This paper will focus on protein biomarkers currently available for use in cervical cancer screening, which appear to improve the detection of women at greatest risk for developing cervical cancer, including Ki-67, p 1 6 I N K 4 a , BD ProEx C, and Cytoactiv HPV L1.