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Journal of Oncology
Volume 2012, Article ID 397267, 8 pages
Review Article

Immunotherapy of Genitourinary Malignancies

Department of Urology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686, Japan

Received 8 October 2011; Accepted 26 December 2011

Academic Editor: M. Roach

Copyright © 2012 Teruo Inamoto and Haruhito Azuma. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Most cancer patients are treated with some combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Despite recent advances in local therapy with curative intent, chemotherapeutic treatments for metastatic disease often remain unsatisfying due to severe side effects and incomplete long-term remission. Therefore, the evaluation of novel therapeutic options is of great interest. Conventional, along with newer treatment strategies target the immune system that suppresses genitourinary (GU) malignancies. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma and non-muscle-invasive bladder caner represent the most immune-responsive types of all human cancer. This review examines the rationale and emerging evidence supporting the anticancer activity of immunotherapy, against GU malignancies.