Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Oncology
Volume 2012, Article ID 737981, 23 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/737981
Review Article

Optimizing Molecular-Targeted Therapies in Ovarian Cancer: The Renewed Surge of Interest in Ovarian Cancer Biomarkers and Cell Signaling Pathways

Molecular Oncology Research Laboratory, Department of Medical BioSciences, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, South Africa

Received 15 September 2011; Accepted 24 November 2011

Academic Editor: Kentaro Nakayama

Copyright © 2012 Donavon Hiss. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Banerjee and M. Gore, “The future of targeted therapies in ovarian cancer,” Oncologist, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 706–716, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. R. C. Bast, B. Hennessy, and G. B. Mills, “The biology of ovarian cancer: new opportunities for translation,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 415–428, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. V. Guarneri, F. Piacentini, E. Barbieri, and P. F. Conte, “Achievements and unmet needs in the management of advanced ovarian cancer,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 152–158, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  4. H. Itamochi, “Targeted therapies in epithelial ovarian cancer: molecular mechanisms of action,” World Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 1, no. 7, pp. 209–220, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  5. A. Jemal, F. Bray, M. M. Center, J. Ferlay, E. Ward, and D. Forman, “Global cancer statistics,” CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 69–90, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  6. R. Siegel, E. Ward, O. Brawley, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2011: the impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths,” CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 212–236, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  7. M. S. Anglesio, J. George, H. Kulbe et al., “IL6-STAT3-HIF signaling and therapeutic response to the angiogenesis inhibitor sunitinib in ovarian clear cell cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 2538–2548, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  8. C. M. Annunziata and E. C. Kohn, “Is there a genomic basis for primary chemoresistance in ovarian cancer?” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 1–2, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. V. Barrès, V. Ouellet, J. Lafontaine, P. N. Tonin, D. M. Provencher, and A. M. Mes-Masson, “An essential role for Ran GTPase in epithelial ovarian cancer cell survival,” Molecular Cancer, vol. 9, article no. 272, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  10. A. L. Creekmore, W. T. Silkworth, D. Cimini, R. V. Jensen, P. C. Roberts, and E. M. Schmelz, “Changes in gene expression and cellular architecture in an ovarian cancer progression model,” PLoS One, vol. 6, no. 3, Article ID e17676, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  11. C. Gómez-Raposo, M. Mendiola, J. Barriuso, D. Hardisson, and A. Redondo, “Molecular characterization of ovarian cancer by gene-expression profiling,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 88–92, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. B. T. Hennessy, R. L. Coleman, and M. Markman, “Ovarian cancer,” The Lancet, vol. 374, no. 9698, pp. 1371–1382, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. A. Hubbard and C. E. Gargett, “A cancer stem cell origin for human endometrial carcinoma?” Reproduction, vol. 140, no. 1, pp. 23–32, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  14. N. Husseinzadeh, “Status of tumor markers in epithelial ovarian cancer has there been any progress? A review,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 152–157, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. D. Jelovac and D. K. Armstrong, “Recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer,” CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 183–203, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  16. T. Kaur, R. A. Slavcev, and S. D. Wettig, “Addressing the challenge: current and future directions in ovarian cancer therapy,” Current Gene Therapy, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 434–458, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. J. Kwon and Y. K. Shin, “Epigenetic regulation of cancer-associated genes in ovarian cancer,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 983–1008, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  18. E. J. Nam and Y. T. Kim, “Alteration of cell-cycle regulation in epithelial ovarian cancer,” International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1169–1182, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. R. Strauss, Z. Y. Li, Y. Liu et al., “Analysis of epithelial and mesenchymal markers in ovarian cancer reveals phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity,” PLoS One, vol. 6, no. 1, Article ID e16186, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  20. J. Chen, L. Wang, L. V. Matyunina, C. G. Hill, and J. F. McDonald, “Overexpression of miR-429 induces mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) in metastatic ovarian cancer cells,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 200–205, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  21. A. Halon, V. Materna, M. Drag-Zalesinska et al., “Estrogen receptor alpha expression in ovarian cancer predicts longer overall survival,” Pathology and Oncology Research, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 1–8, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  22. B. G. Hollier, K. Evans, and S. A. Mani, “The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells: a coalition against cancer therapies,” Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 29–43, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  23. K. Pliarchopoulou and D. Pectasides, “Epithelial ovarian cancer: focus on targeted therapy,” Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 17–23, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. D. Vergara, B. Merlot, J. P. Lucot et al., “Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer,” Cancer Letters, vol. 291, no. 1, pp. 59–66, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. A. B. Alvero, R. Chen, H. H. Fu et al., “Molecular phenotyping of human ovarian cancer stem cells unravel the mechanisms for repair and chemo-resistance,” Cell Cycle, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 158–166, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. Lis, C. Touboul, P. Mirshahi et al., “Tumor associated mesenchymal stem cells protects ovarian cancer cells from hyperthermia through CXCL12,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 128, no. 3, pp. 715–725, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  27. S. Zhang, C. Balch, M. W. Chan et al., “Identification and characterization of ovarian cancer-initiating cells from primary human tumors,” Cancer Research, vol. 68, no. 11, pp. 4311–4320, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  28. B. M. Boman and M. S. Wicha, “Cancer stem cells: a step toward the cure,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 17, pp. 2795–2799, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  29. L. Calorini and F. Bianchini, “Environmental control of invasiveness and metastatic dissemination of tumor cells: role of tumor cell-host cell interactions,” Cell Communication and Signaling, vol. 8, p. 24, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. H. Du and H. S. Taylor, “Stem cells and reproduction,” Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 235–241, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. M. Ganzinelli, P. Mariani, D. Cattaneo et al., “Expression of DNA repair genes in ovarian cancer samples: biological and clinical considerations,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1086–1094, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. P. C. Hermann, S. Bhaskar, M. Cioffi, and C. Heeschen, “Cancer stem cells in solid tumors,” Seminars in Cancer Biology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 77–84, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. H. G. Liu, C. Chen, H. Yang, Y. F. Pan, and X. H. Zhang, “Cancer stem cell subsets and their relationships,” Journal of Translational Medicine, vol. 9, p. 50, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  34. L. Moserle, M. Ghisi, A. Amadori, and S. Indraccolo, “Side population and cancer stem cells: therapeutic implications,” Cancer Letters, vol. 288, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  35. L. R. Rogers and M. Wicha, “Therapeutic approaches to target cancer stem cells,” in Regulatory Networks in Stem Cells, V. K. Rajasekhar and M. C. Vemuri, Eds., pp. 545–560, Humana Press, New York, NY, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  36. A. D. Santin, “Prospective identification and characterization of ovarian cancer stem cells: implications for the treatment of chemotherapy resistant/recurrent ovarian disease,” Cell Cycle, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 3, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. H.-C. Wu, D.-K. Chang, and C.-T. Huang, “Targeted Therapy for Cancer,” Journal of Cancer Molecules, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 57–66, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  38. B.-B. S. Zhou, H. Zhang, M. Damelin, K. G. Geles, J. C. Grindley, and P. B. Dirks, “Tumour-initiating cells: challenges and opportunities for anticancer drug discovery,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 806–823, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  39. R. C. Bast and G. B. Mills, “Personalizing therapy for ovarian cancer: BRCAness and beyond,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 22, pp. 3545–3548, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  40. R. Agarwal, C. Gourley, T. J. Perren et al., “First-line therapy for ovarian cancer with carboplatin followed by paclitaxel-gemcitabine (SCOTROC5): a feasibility study and comparative analysis of the SCOTROC series,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 2020–2026, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  41. K. Rowan, “Intraperitoneal therapy for ovarian cancer: why has it not become standard?” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 101, no. 11, pp. 775–777, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  42. G. D. Aletti, E. L. Eisenhauer, A. Santillan et al., “Identification of patient groups at highest risk from traditional approach to ovarian cancer treatment,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 23–28, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  43. C. Fotopoulou, R. Richter, I. E. Braicu et al., “Clinical outcome of tertiary surgical cytoreduction in patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  44. J. S. Frenel, C. Leux, L. Pouplin et al., “Oxaliplatin-based hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in primary or recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer: a pilot study of 31 patients,” Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 10–16, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  45. R. Fruscio, A. Garbi, G. Parma et al., “Randomized phase III clinical trial evaluating weekly cisplatin for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 347–351, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  46. I. Ramirez, H. S. Chon, and S. M. Apte, “The role of surgery in the management of epithelial ovarian cancer,” Cancer Control, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 22–30, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  47. T. Foster, T. M. Brown, J. Chang, H. D. Menssen, M. B. Blieden, and T. J. Herzog, “A review of the current evidence for maintenance therapy in ovarian cancer,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 290–301, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  48. L. M. Hess, N. Rong, P. O. Monahan, P. Gupta, C. Thomaskutty, and D. Matei, “Continued chemotherapy after complete response to primary therapy among women with advanced ovarian cancer,” Cancer, vol. 116, no. 22, pp. 5251–5260, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  49. S. B. Kaye, N. Colombo, B. J. Monk et al., “Trabectedin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in relapsed ovarian cancer delays third-line chemotherapy and prolongs the platinum-free interval,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 49–58, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  50. C. A. Kunos, M. W. Sill, T. E. Buekers et al., “Low-dose abdominal radiation as a docetaxel chemosensitizer for recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer: a phase I study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 224–228, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  51. D. M. O'Malley, D. L. Richardson, P. S. Rheaume et al., “Addition of bevacizumab to weekly paclitaxel significantly improves progression-free survival in heavily pretreated recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 269–272, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  52. I. Rizvi, J. P. Celli, C. L. Evans et al., “Synergistic enhancement of carboplatin efficacy with photodynamic therapy in a three-dimensional model for micrometastatic ovarian cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 70, no. 22, pp. 9319–9328, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  53. G. A. Sarosy, M. M. Hussain, M. V. Seiden et al., “Ten-year follow-up of a phase 2 study of dose-intense paclitaxel with cisplatin and cyclophosphamide as initial therapy for poor-prognosis, advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer,” Cancer, vol. 116, no. 6, pp. 1476–1484, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  54. J. Sehouli, D. Stengel, P. Harter et al., “Topotecan weekly versus conventional 5-day schedule in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: a randomized multicenter phase II trial of the North-Eastern German Society of Gynecological Oncology Ovarian Cancer Study Group,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 242–248, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  55. P. M. Vencken, M. Kriege, D. Hoogwerf et al., “Chemosensitivity and outcome of BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated ovarian cancer patients after first-line chemotherapy compared with sporadic ovarian cancer patients,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1346–1352, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  56. H. S. Chon and J. M. Lancaster, “Microarray-based gene expression studies in ovarian cancer,” Cancer Control, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 8–15, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  57. J. M. Cragun, “Screening for ovarian cancer,” Cancer Control, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 16–21, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  58. D. W. Cramer, R. C. Bast Jr., C. D. Berg et al., “Ovarian cancer biomarker performance in prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial specimens,” Cancer Prevention Research, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 365–374, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  59. M. Donach, Y. Yu, G. Artioli et al., “Combined use of biomarkers for detection of ovarian cancer in high-risk women,” Tumor Biology, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 209–215, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  60. J. Dorn, V. Magdolen, A. Gkazepis et al., “Circulating biomarker tissue kallikrein-related peptidase KLK5 impacts ovarian cancer patients' survival,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1783–1790, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  61. S. Dutta, F. Q. Wang, A. Phalen, and D. A. Fishman, “Biomarkers for ovarian cancer detection and therapy,” Cancer Biology and Therapy, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 666–675, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. P. Hartge, “Reducing ovarian cancer death rates through screening,” Cancer, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 449–450, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. I. Jacobs and U. Menon, “The Sine Qua Non of discovering novel biomarkers for early detection of ovarian cancer: carefully selected preclinical samples,” Cancer Prevention Research, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 299–302, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  64. Y. M. Kim, D. H. Whang, J. Park et al., “Evaluation of the accuracy of serum human epididymis protein 4 in combination with CA125 for detecting ovarian cancer: a prospective case-control study in a Korean population,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 527–534, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  65. T. S. Kristedja, R. J. Morgan, and M. Cristea, “Targeted agents in ovarian cancer,” Women's Health, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 679–694, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  66. J. A. Ledermann, C. Marth, M. S. Carey et al., “Role of molecular agents and targeted therapy in clinical trials for women with ovarian cancer,” International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 763–770, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  67. J. H. Lee, K. Park, Y. J. Chung et al., “AGR2, a mucinous ovarian cancer marker, promotes cell proliferation and migration,” Experimental and Molecular Medicine, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 91–100, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. S. Leskelä, L. J. Leandro-García, M. Mendiola et al., “The miR-200 family controls β-tubulin III expression and is associated with paclitaxel-based treatment response and progression-free survival in ovarian cancer patients,” Endocrine-Related Cancer, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 85–95, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  69. N. Liu, X. Wang, and X. Sheng, “'Triple negative' epithelial ovarian cancer and pathologic markers for prognosis,” Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 19–23, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  70. C. L. Mitchell, J. P. B. O'connor, A. Jackson et al., “Identification of early predictive imaging biomarkers and their relationship to serological angiogenic markers in patients with ovarian cancer with residual disease following cytotoxic therapy,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1982–1989, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  71. B. J.D. Rein, S. Gupta, R. Dada, J. Safi, C. Michener, and A. Agarwal, “Potential markers for detection and monitoring of ovarian cancer,” Journal of Oncology, vol. 2011, Article ID 475983, 17 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  72. J. Ren, H. Cai, Y. Li et al., “Tumor markers for early detection of ovarian cancer,” Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 787–798, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  73. C. S. Zhu, P. F. Pinsky, D. W. Cramer et al., “A framework for evaluating biomarkers for early detection: validation of biomarker panels for ovarian cancer,” Cancer Prevention Research, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 375–383, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  74. J. H. Hong, J. K. Lee, J. J. Park, N. W. Lee, K. W. Lee, and J. Y. Na, “Expression pattern of the class I homeobox genes in ovarian carcinoma,” Journal of Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 29–37, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  75. J. Li, C. A. Sherman-Baust, M. Tsai-Turton, R. E. Bristow, R. B. Roden, and P. J. Morin, “Claudin-containing exosomes in the peripheral circulation of women with ovarian cancer,” BMC cancer, vol. 9, p. 244, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. L. Bombardelli and U. Cavallaro, “Immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules: novel signaling players in epithelial ovarian cancer,” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 590–594, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  77. P. De Graeff, A. P. G. Crijns, K. A. Ten Hoor et al., “The ErbB signalling pathway: protein expression and prognostic value in epithelial ovarian cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 341–349, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  78. D. Faratian, A. J.M. Zweemer, Y. Nagumo et al., “Trastuzumab and pertuzumab produce changes in morphology and estrogen receptor signaling in ovarian cancer xenografts revealing new treatment strategies,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 17, no. 13, pp. 4451–4461, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  79. D. Gallo, C. Ferlini, and G. Scambia, “The epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the estrogen-signaling in ovarian cancer,” Current Drug Targets, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 474–481, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. L. Hernandez, S. C. Hsu, B. Davidson, M. J. Birrer, E. C. Kohn, and C. M. Annunziata, “Activation of NF-κB signaling by inhibitor of NF-κB kinase β increases aggressiveness of ovarian cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 70, no. 10, pp. 4005–4014, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  81. K. Hua, J. Din, Q. Cao et al., “Estrogen and progestin regulate HIF-1α expression in ovarian cancer cell lines via the activation of Akt signaling transduction pathway,” Oncology Reports, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 893–898, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. Ivan and D. Matei, “Blockade of FGF signaling: therapeutic promise for ovarian cancer,” Cancer Biology and Therapy, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 505–508, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  83. S. Mabuchi, T. Hisamatsu, and T. Kimura, “Targeting mTOR signaling pathway in ovarian cancer,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 18, no. 19, pp. 2960–2968, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. J. H. No, Y. T. Jeon, I. A. Park et al., “Activation of mTOR signaling pathway associated with adverse prognostic factors of epithelial ovarian cancer,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 8–12, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  85. S. L. Rose, M. Kunnimalaiyaan, J. Drenzek, and N. Seiler, “Notch 1 signaling is active in ovarian cancer,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 130–133, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  86. H. Y. Su, H. C. Lai, Y. W. Lin et al., “Epigenetic silencing of SFRP5 is related to malignant phenotype and chemoresistance of ovarian cancer through Wnt signaling pathway,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 127, no. 3, pp. 555–567, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  87. J. Wang, J. Cai, F. Han et al., “Silencing of CXCR4 blocks progression of ovarian cancer and depresses canonical wnt signaling pathway,” International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 981–987, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  88. K. L. White, D. N. Rider, K. R. Kalli, K. L. Knutson, G. P. Jarvik, and E. L. Goode, “Genomics of the NF-κB signaling pathway: hypothesized role in ovarian cancer,” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 785–801, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  89. S. Yamamura, N. Matsumura, M. Mandai et al., “The activated transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway in peritoneal metastases is a potential therapeutic target in ovarian cancer,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 20–28, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  90. K. T. Yeh, T. H. Chen, H. W. Yang et al., “Aberrant TGFbeta/SMAD4 signaling contributes to epigenetic silencing of a putative tumor suppressor, RunX1T1 in ovarian cancer,” Epigenetics, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 727–739, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  91. S. Zecchini, L. Bombardelli, A. Decio et al., “The adhesion molecule NCAM promotes ovarian cancer progression via FGFR signalling,” EMBO Molecular Medicine, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 480–494, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  92. H. Y. Zhang, P. N. Zhang, and H. Sun, “Aberration of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in epithelial ovarian cancer and its implication in cisplatin-based chemotherapy,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 81–86, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  93. X. Zhang, J. George, S. Deb et al., “The Hippo pathway transcriptional co-activator, YAP, is an ovarian cancer oncogene,” Oncogene, vol. 30, no. 25, pp. 2810–2822, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  94. Z. Zhao, X. F. Liu, H. C. Wu et al., “Rab5a overexpression promoting ovarian cancer cell proliferation may be associated with APPL1-related epidermal growth factor signaling pathway,” Cancer Science, vol. 101, no. 6, pp. 1454–1462, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  95. R. N. Eskander and L. M. Randall, “Bevacizumab in the treatment of ovarian cancer,” Biologics: Targets and Therapy, vol. 5, pp. 1–5, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  96. G. J. Gardner and E. L. Jewell, “Current and future directions of clinical trials for ovarian cancer,” Cancer Control, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 44–51, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  97. R. S. Mannel, M. F. Brady, E. C. Kohn et al., “A randomized phase III trial of IV carboplatin and paclitaxel x 3 courses followed by observation versus weekly maintenance low-dose paclitaxel in patients with early-stage ovarian carcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 89–94, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  98. D. G.K. Teoh and A. A. Secord, “Antiangiogenic therapies in epithelial ovarian cancer,” Cancer Control, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 31–43, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  99. M. S. Anglesio, M. S. Carey, M. Köbel, H. MacKay, and D. G. Huntsman, “Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary: a report from the first ovarian clear cell symposium, June 24th, 2010,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 407–415, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  100. C. H. Han, Y. J. Huang, K. H. Lu et al., “Polymorphisms in the SULF1 gene are associated with early age of onset and survival of ovarian cancer,” Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 30, no. 1, p. 5, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  101. M. Konecny, M. Milly, K. Zavodna et al., “Comprehensive genetic characterization of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer families from Slovakia,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 126, no. 1, pp. 119–130, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  102. P. A. Konstantinopoulos, D. Spentzos, B. Y. Karlan et al., “Gene expression profile of BRCAness that correlates with responsiveness to chemotherapy and with outcome in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 22, pp. 3555–3561, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  103. J. Z. Press, A. De Luca, N. Boyd et al., “Ovarian carcinomas with genetic and epigenetic BRCA1 loss have distinct molecular abnormalities,” BMC Cancer, vol. 8, article no. 17, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  104. A. Tinelli, A. Malvasi, G. Leo et al., “Hereditary ovarian cancers: from BRCA mutations to clinical management. A modern appraisal,” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 339–350, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  105. E. Burton, D. Chase, M. Yamamoto, J. De Guzman, D. Imagawa, and M. L. Berman, “Surgical management of recurrent ovarian cancer: the advantage of collaborative surgical management and a multidisciplinary approach,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 29–32, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  106. A. Malek and O. Tchernitsa, “Evaluation of targets for ovarian cancer gene silencing therapy: in vitro and in vivo approaches,” Methods in Molecular Biology, vol. 623, pp. 423–436, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. D. Vergara, A. Tinelli, R. Martignago, A. Malvasi, V. E. Chiuri, and G. Leo, “Biomolecular pathogenesis of borderline ovarian tumors: Focusing target discovery through proteogenomics,” Current Cancer Drug Targets, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 107–116, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. C. L. Chang, B. Ma, X. Pang, T. C. Wu, and C.-F. Hung, “Treatment with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors enables repeated administration of vaccinia virus for vontrol of ovarian cancer,” Molecular Therapy, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1365–1372, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  109. Y. Q. Zhang, Y. C. Tsai, A. Monie, T. C. Wu, and C. F. Hung, “Enhancing the therapeutic effect against ovarian cancer through a combination of viral oncolysis and antigen-specific immunotherapy,” Molecular Therapy, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 692–699, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  110. A. Agarwal, S. L. Tressel, R. Kaimal et al., “Identification of a metalloprotease-chemokine signaling system in the ovarian cancer microenvironment: implications for antiangiogenic therapy,” Cancer Research, vol. 70, no. 14, pp. 5880–5890, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  111. P. H. Anborgh, J. C. Mutrie, A. B. Tuck, and A. F. Chambers, “Role of the metastasis-promoting protein osteopontin in the tumour microenvironment,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 2037–2044, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  112. N. Chan, I. M. Pires, Z. Bencokova et al., “Contextual synthetic lethality of cancer cell kill based on the tumor microenvironment,” Cancer Research, vol. 70, no. 20, pp. 8045–8054, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  113. E. Dean, L. El-Helw, and J. Hasan, “Targeted therapies in epithelial ovarian cancer,” Cancers, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 88–113, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  114. E. S. Han, P. Lin, and M. Wakabayashi, “Current status on biologic therapies in the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer,” Current Treatment Options in Oncology, vol. 10, no. 1-2, pp. 54–66, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  115. D. Hanahan and R. A. Weinberg, “Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation,” Cell, vol. 144, no. 5, pp. 646–674, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  116. V. Kruse, S. Rottey, O. De Backer, S. Van Belle, V. Cocquyt, and H. Denys, “PARP inhibitors in oncology: a new synthetic lethal approach to cancer therapy,” Acta Clinica Belgica, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 2–9, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  117. Y. Wang and G. Giaccone, “Challenges in cancer molecular targets and therapeutics,” Frontiers in Oncology, vol. 1, article 4, pp. 1–3, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  118. Y. Yuan, Y. M. Liao, C. -T. Hsueh, and H. R. Mirshahidi, “Novel targeted therapeutics: inhibitors of MDM2, ALK and PARP,” Journal of Hematology and Oncology, vol. 4, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  119. D. Gioeli, “The dynamics of the cell signaling network; implications for targeted therapies,” in Targeted Therapies, D. Gioeli, Ed., pp. 33–53, Humana Press, New York, NY, USA, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  120. T. A. Yap, C. P. Carden, and S. B. Kaye, “Beyond chemotherapy: targeted therapies in ovarian cancer,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 167–181, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  121. B. M. Norquist, R. L. Garcia, K. H. Allison et al., “The molecular pathogenesis of hereditary ovarian carcinoma,” Cancer, vol. 116, no. 22, pp. 5261–5271, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  122. J. Z. Press, K. Wurz, B. M. Norquist et al., “Identification of a preneoplastic gene expression profile in tubal epithelium of BRCA1 mutation carriers,” Neoplasia, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 993–1002, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. K. Yoshihara, A. Tajima, S. Adachi et al., “Germline copy number variations in BRCA1-associated ovarian cancer patients,” Genes Chromosomes and Cancer, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 167–177, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  124. S. Zhang, R. Royer, S. Li et al., “Frequencies of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among 1,342 unselected patients with invasive ovarian cancer,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 353–357, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  125. R. C. Bast Jr., “Status of tumor markers in ovarian cancer screening,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 21, no. 10, supplement, pp. 200S–205S, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  126. S. Jie, L. Medico, and H. Zhao, “Allelic imbalance in BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene expression and familial ovarian cancer,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 50–56, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  127. C. E. Wakefield, P. Ratnayake, B. Meiser et al., “"For all my family's sake, i should go and find out": an Australian report on genetic counseling and testing uptake in individuals at high risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer,” Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 379–385, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  128. P. C. Fong, D. S. Boss, T. A. Yap et al., “Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in tumors from BRCA mutation carriers,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 361, no. 2, pp. 123–134, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  129. H. Liang and A. R. Tan, “PARP inhibitors,” Current Breast Cancer Reports, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 44–54, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  130. A. Mangerich and A. Bürkle, “How to kill tumor cells with inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 128, no. 2, pp. 251–265, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  131. C. Underhill, M. Toulmonde, and H. Bonnefoi, “A review of PARP inhibitors: from bench to bedside,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 268–279, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  132. J. Weberpals, K. Garbuio, A. O'Brien et al., “The DNA repair proteins BECA1 and EECC1 as predictive markers In sporadic ovarian cancer,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 124, no. 4, pp. 806–815, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  133. A. Aly and S. Ganesan, “BRCA1, PARP, and 53BP1: conditional synthetic lethality and synthetic viability,” Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 66–74, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  134. A. Ashworth, “Drug resistance caused by reversion mutation,” Cancer Research, vol. 68, no. 24, pp. 10021–10023, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  135. K. K. Dhillon, E. M. Swisher, and T. Taniguchi, “Secondary mutations of BRCA1/2 and drug resistance,” Cancer Science, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 663–669, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  136. W. Sakai, E. M. Swisher, B. Y. Karlan et al., “Secondary mutations as a mechanism of cisplatin resistance in BRCA2-mutated cancers,” Nature, vol. 451, no. 7182, pp. 1116–1120, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  137. E. M. Swisher, W. Sakai, B. Y. Karlan, K. Wurz, N. Urban, and T. Taniguchi, “Secondary BRCA1 mutations in BRCA1-mutated ovarian carcinomas with platinum resistance,” Cancer Research, vol. 68, no. 8, pp. 2581–2586, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  138. T. A. Yap, S. K. Sandhu, C. P. Carden, and J. S. de Bono, “Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors: exploiting a synthetic lethal strategy in the clinic,” CA Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 31–49, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  139. S. Rottenberg, J. E. Jaspers, A. Kersbergen et al., “High sensitivity of BRCA1-deficient mammary tumors to the PARP inhibitor AZD2281 alone and in combination with platinum drugs,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 44, pp. 17079–17084, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  140. D. A. Chan and A. J. Giaccia, “Harnessing synthetic lethal interactions in anticancer drug discovery,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 351–364, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  141. G. Peng and S. Y. Lin, “Exploiting the homologous recombination DNA repair network for targeted cancer therapy,” World Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 73–79, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  142. M. W. Audeh, J. Carmichael, R. T. Penson et al., “Oral poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and recurrent ovarian cancer: a proof-of-concept trial,” The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9737, pp. 245–251, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. C. M. Annunziata and J. O'Shaughnessy, “Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase as a novel therapeutic target in cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 16, no. 18, pp. 4517–4526, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  144. D. S. Boss, J. H. Beijnen, and J. H. M. Schellens, “Inducing synthetic lethality using PARP inhibitors,” Current Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 192–195, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. R. Brough, J. R. Frankum, S. Costa-Cabral, C. J. Lord, and A. Ashworth, “Searching for synthetic lethality in cancer,” Current Opinion in Genetics and Development, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 34–41, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  146. C. P. Carden, T. A. Yap, and S. B. Kaye, “PARP inhibition: targeting the Achilles'heel of DNA repair to treat germline and sporadic ovarian cancers,” Current Opinion in Oncology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 473–480, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  147. S. L. Chan and T. Mok, “PARP inhibition in BRCA-mutated breast and ovarian cancers,” The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9737, pp. 211–213, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. Y. Crawford and N. Ferrara, “Tumor and stromal pathways mediating refractoriness/resistance to anti-angiogenic therapies,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 624–630, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  149. B. Döme, M. J. C. Hendrix, S. Paku, J. Tóvári, and J. Tímár, “Alternative vascularization mechanisms in cancer: pathology and therapeutic implications,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 170, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  150. N. Ferrara, “Pathways mediating VEGF-independent tumor angiogenesis,” Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  151. C. Francavilla, L. Maddaluno, and U. Cavallaro, “The functional role of cell adhesion molecules in tumor angiogenesis,” Seminars in Cancer Biology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 298–309, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  152. A. Raza, M. J. Franklin, and A. Z. Dudek, “Pericytes and vessel maturation during tumor angiogenesis and metastasis,” American Journal of Hematology, vol. 85, no. 8, pp. 593–598, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  153. W. A. Spannuth, A. K. Sood, and R. L. Coleman, “Angiogenesis as a strategic target for ovarian cancer therapy,” Nature Clinical Practice Oncology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 194–204, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  154. F. P. Duhoux and J. P. Machiels, “Antivascular therapy for epithelial ovarian cancer,” Journal of Oncology, vol. 2010, Article ID 372547, 16 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  155. N. G. Gavalas, A. Karadimou, M. A. Dimopoulos, and A. Bamias, “Immune response in ovarian cancer: how is the immune system involved in prognosis and therapy: potential for treatment utilization,” Clinical and Developmental Immunology, vol. 2010, Article ID 791603, 15 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  156. G. C. Kumaran, G. C. Jayson, and A. R. Clamp, “Antiangiogenic drugs in ovarian cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  157. L. J. Willmott and J. P. Fruehauf, “Targeted therapy in ovarian cancer,” Journal of Oncology, vol. 2010, Article ID 740472, 9 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  158. F. Coilinson and G. Jayson, “New therapeutic agents in ovarian cancer,” Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 44–53, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  159. T. de La Motte Rouge, M. C. Petrella, J. Michels et al., “New drugs and targeted therapeutic agents in ovarian cancer,” Bulletin du Cancer, vol. 96, no. 12, pp. 1215–1224, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. L. A. Hefler, R. Zeillinger, C. Grimm et al., “Preoperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor as a prognostic parameter in ovarian cancer,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 512–517, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  161. C. Rudlowski, A. K. Pickart, C. Fuhljahn et al., “Prognostic significance of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in ovarian cancer patients: a long-term follow-up,” International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 183–189, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  162. R. A. Burger, “Overview of anti-angiogenic agents in development for ovarian cancer,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 230–238, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  163. U. A. Matulonis, “Bevacizumab and its use in epithelial ovarian cancer,” Future Oncology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 365–379, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  164. C. M. Annunziata, A. J. Walker, L. Minasian et al., “Vandetanib, designed to inhibit VEGFR2 and EGFR signaling, had no clinical activity as monotherapy for recurrent ovarian cancer and no detectable modulation of VEGFR2,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 664–672, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  165. L. Bodnar, M. Górnas, and C. Szczylik, “Sorafenib as a third line therapy in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer or primary peritoneal cancer: a phase II study,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 33–36, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  166. D. Matei, M. W. Sill, H. A. Lankes et al., “Activity of sorafenib in recurrent ovarian cancer and primary peritoneal carcinomatosis: a gynecologic oncology group trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 69–75, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  167. J. Homsi and A. I. Daud, “Spectrum of activity and mechanism of action of VEGF/PDGF inhibitors,” Cancer Control, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 285–294, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. F. Shojaei and N. Ferrara, “Role of the microenvironment in tumor growth and in refractoriness/resistance to anti-angiogenic therapies,” Drug Resistance Updates, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 219–230, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  169. B. A. Teicher, “Antiangiogenic agents and targets: a perspective,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 6–12, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  170. G. Tortora, F. Ciardiello, and G. Gasparini, “Combined targeting of EGFR-dependent and VEGF-dependent pathways: rationale, preclinical studies and clinical applications,” Nature Clinical Practice Oncology, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 521–530, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  171. B. D. Gomperts, I. M. Kramer, and P. E. R. Tatham, “Signalling pathways operated by receptor protein tyrosine kinases,” in Signal Transduction, pp. 315–374, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  172. J. Nelson, “Single pass growth factor receptors,” in Structure and Function in Cell Signalling, pp. 179–214, Wiley, West Sussex, UK, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  173. R. C. Bast Jr., C. M. Boyer, I. Jacobs et al., “Cell growth regulation in epithelial ovarian cancer,” Cancer, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 1597–1601, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. F. Ciardiello and G. Tortora, “Drug therapy: EGFR antagonists in cancer treatment,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 11, pp. 1096–1174, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  175. K. D. Steffensen, M. Waldstrøm, U. Jeppesen, E. Jakobsen, I. Brandslund, and A. Jakobsen, “The prognostic importance of cyclooxygenase 2 and HER2 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer,” International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 798–807, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  176. A. T. Baron, J. M. Lafky, C. H. Boardman et al., “Soluble epidermal growth factor receptor: a biomarker of epithelial ovarian cancer,” Cancer Treatment and Research, vol. 149, pp. 189–202, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. J. M. Lafky, J. A. Wilken, A. T. Baron, and N. J. Maihle, “Clinical implications of the ErbB/epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family and its ligands in ovarian cancer,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Reviews on Cancer, vol. 1785, no. 2, pp. 232–265, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  178. C. Bolitho, M. A. Hahn, R. C. Baxter, and D. J. Marsh, “The chemokine CXCL1 induces proliferation in epithelial ovarian cancer cells by transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor,” Endocrine-Related Cancer, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 929–940, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  179. D. Reimer, M. Hubalek, S. Riedle et al., “E2F3a is critically involved in epidermal growth factor receptor-directed proliferation in ovarian cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 70, no. 11, pp. 4613–4623, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  180. L. G. Hudson, R. Zeineldin, M. Silberberg, and M. S. Stack, “Activated epidermal growth factor receptor in ovarian cancer,” Cancer Treatment and Research, vol. 149, pp. 203–226, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  181. L. P. Song, G. T. Hammond, and P. C. K. Leung, “Epidermal growth factor-induced GnRH-II synthesis contributes to ovarian cancer cell invasion,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1646–1656, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  182. Y. Tanaka, Y. Terai, A. Tanabe et al., “Prognostic effect of epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations and the aberrant phosphorylation of Akt and ERK in ovarian cancer,” Cancer Biology and Therapy, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 50–57, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  183. H. Y. Zhou, Y. L. Pon, and A. S. T. Wong, “Synergistic effects of epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor on human ovarian cancer cell invasion and migration: role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase,” Endocrinology, vol. 148, no. 11, pp. 5195–5208, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  184. M. A. Bookman, K. M. Darcy, D. Clarke-Pearson, R. A. Boothby, and I. R. Horowitz, “Evaluation of monoclonal humanized anti-HER2 antibody, trastuzumab, in patients with recurrent or refractory ovarian or primary peritoneal carcinoma with overexpression of HER2: a phase II trial of the Gynecologic Oncology Group,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 283–290, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  185. S. Campos, O. Hamid, M. V. Seiden et al., “Multicenter, randomized phase II trial of oral CI-1033 for previously treated advanced ovarian cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 24, pp. 5597–5604, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  186. A. N. Gordon, N. Finkler, R. P. Edwards et al., “Efficacy and safety of erlotinib HCl, an epidermal growth factor receptor (HER1/EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma: results from a phase II multicenter study,” International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 785–792, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  187. M. S. Gordon, D. Matei, C. Aghajanian et al., “Clinical activity of pertuzumab (rhuMAb 2C4), a HER dimerization inhibitor, in advanced ovarian cancer: potential predictive relationship with tumor HER2 activation status,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 24, no. 26, pp. 4324–4332, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  188. M. J. Palayekar and T. J. Herzog, “The emerging role of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in ovarian cancer,” International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 879–890, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  189. J. Reibenwein and M. Krainer, “Targeting signaling pathways in ovarian cancer,” Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 353–365, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  190. R. J. Schilder, M. W. Sill, X. Chen et al., “Phase II study of gefitinib in patients with relapsed or persistent ovarian or primary peritoneal carcinoma and evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and immunohistochemical expression: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 11, no. 15, pp. 5539–5548, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  191. A. A. Secord, J. A. Blessing, D. K. Armstrong et al., “Phase II trial of cetuximab and carboplatin in relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer and evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor expression: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 108, pp. 493–499, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  192. L. Tang and X. Zhao, “Polyclonal antitumor immunoglobulin may play a role in ovarian cancer adjuvant therapy,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 530–532, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  193. U. Wagner, A. du Bois, J. Pfisterer et al., “Gefitinib in combination with tamoxifen in patients with ovarian cancer refractory or resistant to platinum-taxane based therapy-A phase II trial of the AGO Ovarian Cancer Study Group (AGO-OVAR 2.6),” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 132–137, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  194. R. Zeineldin, C. Y. Muller, M. S. Stack, and L. G. Hudson, “Targeting the EGF receptor for ovarian cancer therapy,” Journal of Oncology, vol. 2010, Article ID 414676, 11 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  195. C. Elie, J. F. Geay, M. Morcos et al., “Lack of relationship between EGFR-1 immunohistochemical expression and prognosis in a multicentre clinical trial of 93 patients with advanced primary ovarian epithelial cancer (GINECO group),” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 470–475, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  196. J. S. Nielsen, E. Jakobsen, B. Hølund, K. Bertelsen, and A. Jakobsen, “Prognostic significance of p53, Her-2, and EGFR overexpression in borderline and epithelial ovarian cancer,” International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1086–1096, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  197. A. Psyrri, M. Kassar, Z. Yu et al., “Effect of epidermal growth factor receptor expression level on survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 11, no. 24, pp. 8637–8643, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  198. E. M. Posadas, V. Kwitkowski, H. L. Kotz et al., “A prospective analysis of imatinib-induced c-KIT modulation in ovarian cancer: a phase II clinical study with proteomic profiling,” Cancer, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 309–317, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  199. E. M. Posadas, M. S. Liel, V. Kwitkowski et al., “A phase II and pharmacodynamic study of gefitinib in patients with refractory or recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer,” Cancer, vol. 109, no. 7, pp. 1323–1330, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  200. H. Tsujioka, F. Yotsumoto, S. Hikita, T. Ueda, M. Kuroki, and S. Miyamoto, “Targeting the heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor in ovarian cancer therapy,” Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 24–30, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  201. H. Yagi, F. Yotsumoto, and S. Miyamoto, “Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor promotes transcoelomic metastasis in ovarian cancer through epithelial-mesenchymal transition,” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 3441–3451, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  202. R. Bianco, S. Garofalo, R. Rosa et al., “Inhibition of mTOR pathway by everolimus cooperates with EGFR inhibitors in human tumours sensitive and resistant to anti-EGFR drugs,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 98, no. 5, pp. 923–930, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  203. K. J. Dedes, D. Wetterskog, A. Ashworth, S. B. Kaye, and J. S. Reis-Filho, “Emerging therapeutic targets in endometrial cancer,” Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 261–271, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  204. H. Foster, H. M. Coley, A. Goumenou, G. Pados, A. Harvey, and E. Karteris, “Differential expression of mTOR signalling components in drug resistance in ovarian cancer,” Anticancer Research, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 3529–3534, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  205. X. B. Trinh, W. A. A. Tjalma, P. B. Vermeulen et al., “The VEGF pathway and the AKT/mTOR/p70S6K1 signalling pathway in human epithelial ovarian cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 100, no. 6, pp. 971–978, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  206. H. A. Alshenawy, “Immunohistochemical expression of epidermal growth factor receptor, E-cadherin, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in ovarian epithelial cancer and relation to patient deaths,” Annals of Diagnostic Pathology, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 387–395, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  207. R. Lim, N. Ahmed, N. Borregaard et al., “Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) an early-screening biomarker for ovarian cancer: NGAL is associated with epidermal growth factor-induced epithelio-mesenchymal transition,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 120, no. 11, pp. 2426–2434, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  208. J. Morrison, S. S. Briggs, N. K. Green et al., “Cetuximab retargeting of adenovirus via the epidermal growth factor receptor for treatment of intraperitoneal ovarian cancer,” Human Gene Therapy, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 239–251, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  209. Q. Sheng and J. Liu, “The therapeutic potential of targeting the EGFR family in epithelial ovarian cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 104, no. 8, pp. 1241–1245, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  210. D. R. Siwak, M. Carey, B. T. Hennessy et al., “Targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor in epithelial ovarian cancer: current knowledge and future challenges,” Journal of Oncology, vol. 2010, Article ID 568938, 20 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  211. S. C. Chauhan, D. Kumar, and M. Jaggi, “Mucins in ovarian cancer diagnosis and therapy,” Journal of Ovarian Research, vol. 2, no. 1, article no. 21, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  212. V. A. Heinzelmann-Schwarz, M. Gardiner-Garden, S. M. Henshall et al., “A distinct molecular profile associated with mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 904–913, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  213. N. Jonckheere and I. van Seuningen, “The membrane-bound mucins: from cell signalling to transcriptional regulation and expression in epithelial cancers,” Biochimie, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  214. M. R. Andersen, B. A. Goff, K. A. Lowe et al., “Use of a Symptom Index, CA125, and HE4 to predict ovarian cancer,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 378–383, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  215. D. W. Cramer, D. J. O'Rourke, A. F. Vitonis et al., “CA125 immune complexes in ovarian cancer patients with low CA125 concentrations,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 1889–1892, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  216. N. D. Fleming, I. Cass, C. S. Walsh, B. Y. Karlan, and A. J. Li, “CA125 surveillance increases optimal resectability at secondary cytoreductive surgery for recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 249–252, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  217. M. Montagnana, E. Danese, O. Ruzzenente et al., “The ROMA (Risk of Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm) for estimating the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in women presenting with pelvic mass: is it really useful?” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 521–525, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  218. J. A. Rauh-Hain, T. C. Krivak, M. G. del Carmen, and A. B. Olawaiye, “Ovarian cancer screening and early detection in the general population,” Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 15–21, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  219. C. A. Shah, K. A. Lowe, P. Paley et al., “Influence of ovarian cancer risk status on the diagnostic performance of the serum biomarkers mesothelin, HE4, and CA125,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1365–1372, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  220. T. Van Gorp, I. Cadron, E. Despierre et al., “HE4 and CA125 as a diagnostic test in ovarian cancer: prospective validation of the risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 104, no. 5, pp. 863–870, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  221. C. van Haaften-Day, Y. Shen, F. Xu et al., “OVXL, macrophage-colony stimulating factor, and CA-125-II as tumor markers for epithelial ovarian carcinoma a critical appraisal,” Cancer, vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 2837–2844, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  222. C. Thériault, M. Pinard, M. Comamala et al., “MUC16 (CA125) regulates epithelial ovarian cancer cell growth, tumorigenesis and metastasis,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 121, no. 3, pp. 434–443, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  223. M. Boivin, D. Lane, A. Piché, and C. Rancourt, “CA125 (MUC16) tumor antigen selectively modulates the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to genotoxic drug-induced apoptosis,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 407–413, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  224. J. A. A. Gubbels, J. Belisle, M. Onda et al., “Mesothelin-MUC16 binding is a high affinity, N-glycan dependent interaction that facilitates peritoneal metastasis of ovarian tumors,” Molecular Cancer, vol. 5, article no. 50, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  225. A. Rump, Y. Morikawa, M. Tanaka et al., “Binding of ovarian cancer antigen CA125/MUC61 to mesothelin mediates cell adhesion,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 279, no. 10, pp. 9190–9198, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  226. J. A. Belisle, J. A. A. Gubbels, C. A. Raphael et al., “Peritoneal natural killer cells from epithelial ovarian cancer patients show an altered phenotype and bind to the tumour marker MUC16 (CA125),” Immunology, vol. 122, no. 3, pp. 418–429, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  227. Y. Chen, S. Clark, T. Wong et al., “Armed antibodies targeting the mucin repeats of the ovarian cancer antigen, MUC16, are highly efficacious in animal tumor models,” Cancer Research, vol. 67, no. 10, pp. 4924–4932, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  228. S. A. McQuarrie, J. R. Mercer, A. Syme, M. R. Suresh, and G. G. Miller, “Preliminary results of nanopharmaceuticals used in the radioimmunotheraphy of ovarian cancer,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 29–34, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  229. N. Scholler and N. Urban, “CA125 in ovarian cancer,” Biomarkers in Medicine, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 513–523, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  230. A. A. Chekmasova, T. D. Rao, Y. Nikhamin et al., “Successful eradication of established peritoneal ovarian tumors in SCID-Beige mice following adoptive transfer of T cells genetically targeted to the MUC16 antigen,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 16, no. 14, pp. 3594–3606, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  231. M. O. Lasaro and H. C. J. Ertl, “Targeting inhibitory pathways in cancer immunotherapy,” Current Opinion in Immunology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 385–390, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  232. T. Zhang and D. Herlyn, “Combination of active specific immunotherapy or adoptive antibody or lymphocyte immunotherapy with chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer,” Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 475–492, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  233. S. Rachagani, M. P. Torres, N. Moniaux, and S. K. Batra, “Current status of mucins in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer,” BioFactors, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 509–527, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  234. A. P. Singh, S. Senapati, M. P. Ponnusamy et al., “Clinical potential of mucins in diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of ovarian cancer,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1076–1085, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  235. T. Edgell, G. Martin-Roussety, G. Barker et al., “Phase II biomarker trial of a multimarker diagnostic for ovarian cancer,” Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, vol. 136, no. 7, pp. 1079–1088, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  236. F. J. Xu, Y. H. Yu, L. Daly et al., “OVX1 as a marker for early stage endometrial carcinoma,” Cancer, vol. 73, no. 7, pp. 1855–1858, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  237. F. J. Xu, Y. H. Yu, L. Daly et al., “OVX1 radioimmunoassay complements CA-125 for predicting the presence of residual ovarian carcinoma at second-look surgical surveillance procedures,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 1506–1510, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  238. F. J. Xu, Y. H. Yu, B. Y. Li et al., “Development of two new monoclonal antibodies reactive to a surface antigen present on human ovarian epithelial cancer cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 51, no. 15, pp. 4012–4019, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  239. C. N. Baxevanis, S. A. Perez, and M. Papamichail, “Combinatorial treatments including vaccines, chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy,” Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 317–324, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  240. A. B. Frey and N. Monu, “Signaling defects in anti-tumor T cells,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 222, no. 1, pp. 192–205, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  241. M. Mathew and R. S. Verma, “Humanized immunotoxins: a new generation of immunotoxins for targeted cancer therapy,” Cancer Science, vol. 100, no. 8, pp. 1359–1365, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  242. L. Gao, L. Yan, B. Lin et al., “Enhancive effects of Lewis y antigen on CD44-mediated adhesion and spreading of human ovarian cancer cell line RMG-I,” Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 30, no. 1, p. 15, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  243. T. V. Clendenen, E. Lundin, A. Zeleniuch-Jacquotte et al., “Circulating inflammation markers and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 799–810, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  244. R. L. Giuntoli, T. J. Webb, A. Zoso et al., “Ovarian cancer-associated ascites demonstrates altered immune environment: implications for antitumor immunity,” Anticancer Research, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 2875–2884, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  245. S. Kim, A. Hagemann, and A. Demichele, “Immuno-modulatory gene polymorphisms and outcome in breast and ovarian cancer,” Immunological Investigations, vol. 38, no. 3-4, pp. 324–340, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  246. H. Kulbe, R. Thompson, J. L. Wilson et al., “The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α generates an autocrine tumor-promoting network in epithelial ovarian cancer cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 585–592, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  247. A. L. Leizer, A. B. Alvero, H. H. Fu et al., “Regulation of inflammation by the NF-κB pathway in ovarian cancer stem cells,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 438–447, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  248. W. W. Lin and M. Karin, “A cytokine-mediated link between innate immunity, inflammation, and cancer,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 117, no. 5, pp. 1175–1183, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  249. G. Mor, G. Yin, I. Chefetz, Y. Yang, and A. Alvero, “Ovarian cancer stem cells and inflammation,” Cancer Biology and Therapy, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 708–713, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  250. M. Nowak, E. Glowacka, M. Szpakowski et al., “Proinflammatory and immunosuppressive serum, ascites and cyst fluid cytokines in patients with early and advanced ovarian cancer and benign ovarian tumors,” Neuroendocrinology Letters, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 375–383, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  251. R. Yigit, C. G. Figdor, P. L.M. Zusterzeel, J. M. Pots, R. Torensma, and L. F.A.G. Massuger, “Cytokine analysis as a tool to understand tumour-host interaction in ovarian cancer,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 1883–1889, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  252. J. Bollrath and F. R. Greten, “IKK/NF-B and STAT3 pathways: central signalling hubs in inflammation-mediated tumour promotion and metastasis,” EMBO Reports, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 1314–1319, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  253. Z. Duan, R. Y. Ames, M. Ryan, F. J. Hornicek, H. Mankin, and M. V. Seiden, “CDDO-Me, a synthetic triterpenoid, inhibits expression of IL-6 and Stat3 phosphorylation in multi-drug resistant ovarian cancer cells,” Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 681–689, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  254. Z. Duan, R. Foster, D. A. Bell et al., “Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 pathway activation in drug-resistant ovarian cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 12, no. 17, pp. 5055–5063, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  255. S. Grivennikov and M. Karin, “Autocrine IL-6 signaling: a key event in tumorigenesis?” Cancer Cell, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 7–9, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  256. S. I. Grivennikov and M. Karin, “Dangerous liaisons: STAT3 and NF-κB collaboration and crosstalk in cancer,” Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 11–19, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  257. D. R. Hodge, E. M. Hurt, and W. L. Farrar, “The role of IL-6 and STAT3 in inflammation and cancer,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 41, no. 16, pp. 2502–2512, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  258. H. Yu, D. Pardoll, and R. Jove, “STATs in cancer inflammation and immunity: a leading role for STAT3,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 798–809, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  259. Y. Wang, X. L. Niu, Y. Qu et al., “Autocrine production of interleukin-6 confers cisplatin and paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer cells,” Cancer Letters, vol. 295, no. 1, pp. 110–123, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  260. D. Lane, I. Matte, C. Rancourt, and A. Piché, “Prognostic significance of IL-6 and IL-8 ascites levels in ovarian cancer patients,” BMC Cancer, vol. 11, p. 210, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  261. Y. Guo, J. Nemeth, C. O'Brien et al., “Effects of siltuximab on the IL-6-induced signaling pathway in ovarian cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 16, no. 23, pp. 5759–5769, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  262. C. W. Lo, M. W. Chen, M. Hsiao et al., “IL-6 trans-signaling in formation and progression of malignant ascites in ovarian cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 424–434, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  263. M. Colomiere, J. Findlay, L. Ackland, and N. Ahmed, “Epidermal growth factor-induced ovarian carcinoma cell migration is associated with JAK2/STAT3 signals and changes in the abundance and localization of α6β1 integrin,” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1034–1045, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  264. M. Colomiere, A. C. Ward, C. Riley et al., “Cross talk of signals between EGFR and IL-6R through JAK2/STAT3 mediate epithelial-mesenchymal transition in ovarian carcinomas,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 134–144, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  265. V. Baud and M. Karin, “Is NF-κB a good target for cancer therapy? Hopes and pitfalls,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 33–40, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  266. M. M. Chaturvedi, B. Sung, V. R. Yadav, R. Kannappan, and B. B. Aggarwal, “NF-κB addiction and its role in cancer: one size does not fit all,” Oncogene, vol. 30, no. 14, pp. 1615–1630, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  267. L. Kleinberg, H. P. Dong, A. Holth et al., “Cleaved caspase-3 and nuclear factor-κB p65 are prognostic factors in metastatic serous ovarian carcinoma,” Human Pathology, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 795–806, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  268. X. Fang, S. Yu, R. C. Bast et al., “Mechanisms for lysophosphatidic acid-induced cytokine production in ovarian cancer cells,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 279, no. 10, pp. 9653–9661, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  269. W. M. Merritt, Y. G. Lin, W. A. Spannuth et al., “Effect of interleukin-8 gene silencing with liposome-encapsulated small interfering RNA on ovarian cancer cell growth,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 359–372, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  270. B. M. Schwartz, G. Hong, B. H. Morrison et al., “Lysophospholipids increase interleukin-8 expression in ovarian cancer cells,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 291–300, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  271. D. J. J. Waugh and C. Wilson, “The interleukin-8 pathway in cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 14, no. 21, pp. 6735–6741, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  272. L. Xu and I. J. Fidler, “Interleukin 8: an autocrine growth factor for human ovarian cancer,” Oncology Research, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 97–106, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  273. J. Yang, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, J. Shao, X. J. Zhang, and Z. Yao, “Reciprocal regulation of 17β-estradiol, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 during growth and progression of epithelial ovarian cancer,” Cytokine, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 382–391, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  274. L. F. Lee, R. P. Hellendall, Y. Wang et al., “IL-8 reduced tumorigenicity of human ovarian cancer in vivo due to neutrophil infiltration,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 164, no. 5, pp. 2769–2775, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  275. K. M. Schmeler, S. Vadhan-Raj, P. T. Ramirez et al., “A phase II study of GM-CSF and rIFN-γ1b plus carboplatin for the treatment of recurrent, platinum-sensitive ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 210–215, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  276. F. Brimo, M. Herawi, R. Sharma, G. J. Netto, J. I. Epstein, and P. B. Illei, “Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β expression in clear cell adenocarcinomas of the bladder and urethra: diagnostic utility and implications for histogenesis,” Human Pathology, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 1613–1619, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  277. A. Higashiguchi, T. Yamada, N. Susumu et al., “Specific expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β in the ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma and its application to cytological diagnosis,” Cancer Science, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 387–391, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  278. N. Kato, M. Toukairin, I. Asanuma, and T. Motoyama, “Immunocytochemistry for hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β (HNF-11β): a marker for ovarian clear cell carcinoma,” Diagnostic Cytopathology, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 193–197, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  279. A. Tsuchiya, M. Sakamoto, J. Yasuda et al., “Expression profiling in ovarian clear cell carcinoma: identification of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β as a molecular marker and a possible molecular target for therapy of ovarian clear cell carcinoma,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 163, no. 6, pp. 2503–2512, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  280. K. Yamaguchi, M. Mandai, T. Oura et al., “Identification of an ovarian clear cell carcinoma gene signature that reflects inherent disease biology and the carcinogenic processes,” Oncogene, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 1741–1752, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  281. D. Bouchard, D. Morisset, Y. Bourbonnais, and G. M. Tremblay, “Proteins with whey-acidic-protein motifs and cancer,” Lancet Oncology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 167–174, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  282. J. Li, S. Dowdy, T. Tipton et al., “HE4 as a biomarker for ovarian and endometrial cancer management,” Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 555–566, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  283. P. H. Anborgh, J. C. Mutrie, A. B. Tuck, and A. F. Chambers, “Pre- and post-translational regulation of osteopontin in cancer,” Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 111–122, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  284. N. I. F. Johnston, V. K. Gunasekharan, A. Ravindranath, C. O'Connell, P. G. Johnston, and M. K. El-Tanani, “Osteopontin as a target for cancer therapy,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 4361–4372, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  285. T. M. Tilli, V. F. Franco, B. K. Robbs et al., “Osteopontin-c splicing isoform contributes to ovarian cancer progression,” Molecular Cancer Research, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 280–293, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  286. M. Breidenbach, D. T. Rein, M. Everts et al., “Mesothelin-mediated targeting of adenoviral vectors for ovarian cancer gene therapy,” Gene Therapy, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 187–193, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  287. M. J. Yen, C. Y. Hsu, T. L. Mao et al., “Diffuse mesothelin expression correlates with prolonged patient survival in ovarian serous carcinoma,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 827–831, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  288. N. Ahmed, K. T. Oliva, G. Barker et al., “Proteomic tracking of serum protein isoforms as screening biomarkers of ovarian cancer,” Proteomics, vol. 5, no. 17, pp. 4625–4636, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  289. R. Saldova, L. Royle, C. M. Radcliffe et al., “Ovarian cancer is associated with changes in glycosylation in both acute-phase proteins and IgG,” Glycobiology, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1344–1356, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  290. B. Ye, D. W. Cramer, S. J. Skates et al., “Haptoglobin-α subunit as potential serum biomarker in ovarian cancer: identification and characterization using proteomic profiling and mass spectrometry,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 2904–2911, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  291. C. Zhao, L. Annamalai, C. Guo et al., “Circulating haptoglobin is an independent prognostic factor in the sera of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer,” Neoplasia, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  292. H. Kobayashi, M. Suzuki, N. Kanayama, and T. Terao, “Genetic down-regulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase by bikunin correlates with suppression of invasion and metastasis in human ovarian cancer HRA cells,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 279, no. 8, pp. 6371–6379, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  293. H. Kobayashi, M. Suzuki, Y. Tanaka, N. Kanayama, and T. Terao, “A Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, bikunin, inhibits ovarian cancer cell invasion by blocking the calcium-dependent transforming growth factor-β1 signaling cascade,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 278, no. 10, pp. 7790–7799, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  294. H. Kobayashi, T. Yagyu, K. Inagaki et al., “Bikunin plus paclitaxel markedly reduces tumor burden and ascites in mouse model of ovarian cancer,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 134–139, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  295. J. Liu, Q. Guo, B. Chen, Y. Yu, H. Lu, and Y. Y. Li, “Cathepsin B and its interacting proteins, bikunin and TSRC1, correlate with TNF-induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells OV-90,” FEBS Letters, vol. 580, no. 1, pp. 245–250, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  296. H. Matsuzaki, H. Kobayashi, T. Yagyu et al., “Plasma bikunin as a favorable prognostic factor in ovarian cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 1463–1472, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  297. M. Suzuki, H. Kobayashi, Y. Tanaka et al., “Bikunin target genes in ovarian cancer cells identified by microarray analysis,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 278, no. 17, pp. 14640–14646, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  298. Y. Takei, H. Mizukami, Y. Saga et al., “Overexpression of a hybrid gene consisting of the amino-terminal fragment of urokinase and carboxyl-terminal domain of bikunin suppresses invasion and migration of human ovarian cancer cells in vitro,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 54–58, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  299. Y. Tanaka, H. Kobayashi, M. Suzuki, N. Kanayama, M. Suzuki, and T. Terao, “Upregulation of bikunin in tumor-infiltrating macrophages as a factor of favorable prognosis in ovarian cancer,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 725–734, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  300. E. Basal, G. Z. Eghbali-Fatourechi, K. R. Kalli et al., “Functional folate receptor alpha is elevated in the blood of ovarian cancer patients,” PLoS One, vol. 4, no. 7, Article ID e6292, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  301. L. M. Cranê, H. J. Arts, M. van Oosten et al., “The effect of chemotherapy on expression of folate receptor-alpha in ovarian cancer,” Cell Oncology, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  302. K. R. Kalli, A. L. Oberg, G. L. Keeney et al., “Folate receptor alpha as a tumor target in epithelial ovarian cancer,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 108, pp. 619–626, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  303. J. A. Konner, K. M. Bell-McGuinn, P. Sabbatini et al., “Farletuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against folate receptor α, in epithelial ovarian cancer: a phase I study,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 16, no. 21, pp. 5288–5295, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  304. I. M. Shih and B. Davidson, “Pathogenesis of ovarian cancer: clues from selected overexpressed genes,” Future Oncology, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 1641–1657, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  305. R. Lim, M. Lappas, N. Ahmed, M. Permezel, M. A. Quinn, and G. E. Rice, “2D-PAGE of ovarian cancer: analysis of soluble and insoluble fractions using medium-range immobilized pH gradients,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 406, no. 3, pp. 408–413, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  306. L. E. Moore, E. T. Fung, M. McGuire et al., “Evaluation of apolipoprotein A1 and posttranslationally modified forms of transthyretin as biomarkers for ovarian cancer detection in an independent study population,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1641–1646, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  307. V. Nosov, F. Su, M. Amneus et al., “Validation of serum biomarkers for detection of early-stage ovarian cancer,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 200, no. 6, pp. 639.e1–639.e5, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  308. S. S. Abdullah-Soheimi, B. K. Lim, O. H. Hashim, and A. S. Shuib, “Patients with ovarian carcinoma excrete different altered levels of urine CD59, kininogen-1 and fragments of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 and albumin,” Proteome Science, vol. 8, article no. 58, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  309. J. Kodama, Y. Miyagi, N. Seki et al., “Serum C-reactive protein as a prognostic factor in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 107–110, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  310. A. Macciò, P. Lai, M. C. Santona, L. Pagliara, G. B. Melis, and G. Mantovani, “High serum levels of soluble IL-2 receptor, cytokines, and C reactive protein correlate with impairment of T cell response in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 248–252, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  311. A. Macciò, C. Madeddu, D. Massa et al., “Interleukin-6 and leptin as markers of energy metabolicchanges in advanced ovarian cancer patients,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 13, no. 9 B, pp. 3951–3959, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  312. A. Macciò, C. Madeddu, D. Massa et al., “Hemoglobin levels correlate with interleukin-6 levels in patients with advanced untreated epithelial ovarian cancer: role of inflammation in cancer-related anemia,” Blood, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 362–367, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  313. A. T. Toriola, K. Grankvist, C. B. Agborsangaya, A. Lukanova, M. Lehtinen, and H. -M. Surcel, “Changes in pre-diagnostic serum C-reactive protein concentrations and ovarian cancer risk: a longitudinal study,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1916–1921, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  314. M. Chen, L. M. Chen, C. Y. Lin, and K. X. Chai, “The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is proteolytically modified by the Matriptase-Prostasin serine protease cascade in cultured epithelial cells,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1783, no. 5, pp. 896–903, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  315. F. P. Costa, E. L. Batista Junior, A. Zelmanowicz et al., “Prostasin, a potential tumor marker in ovarian cancer—a pilot study,” Clinics, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 641–644, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  316. S. C. Mok, J. Chao, S. Skates et al., “Prostasin, a potential serum marker for ovarian cancer: identification through microarray technology,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 93, no. 19, pp. 1458–1464, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  317. R. Agarwal, T. D'Souza, and P. J. Morin, “Claudin-3 and claudin-4 expression in ovarian epithelial cells enhances invasion and is associated with increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity,” Cancer Research, vol. 65, no. 16, pp. 7378–7385, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  318. T. D'Souza, R. Agarwal, and P. J. Morin, “Phosphorylation of Claudin-3 at threonine 192 by cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulates tight junction barrier function in ovarian cancer cells,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 280, no. 28, pp. 26233–26240, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  319. B. Davidson, “The diagnostic and molecular characteristics of malignant mesothelioma and ovarian/peritoneal serous carcinoma,” Cytopathology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 5–21, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  320. H. Honda, M. J. Pazin, H. Ji, R. P. Wernyj, and P. J. Morin, “Crucial roles of Sp1 and epigenetic modifications in the regulation of the cldn4 promoter in ovarian cancer cells,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 281, no. 30, pp. 21433–21444, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  321. L. Kleinberg, A. Holth, C. G. Trope, R. Reich, and B. Davidson, “Claudin upregulation in ovarian carcinoma effusions is associated with poor survival,” Human Pathology, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 747–757, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  322. J. Li, S. Chigurupati, R. Agarwal et al., “Possible angiogenic roles for claudin-4 in ovarian cancer,” Cancer Biology and Therapy, vol. 8, no. 19, pp. 1806–1814, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  323. L. B. A. Rangel, R. Agarwal, T. D'Souza et al., “Tight junction proteins claudin-3 and claudin-4 are frequently overexpressed in ovarian cancer but not in ovarian cystadenomas,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 2567–2575, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  324. I. Szabó, A. Kiss, Z. Schaff, and G. Sobel, “Claudins as diagnostic and prognostic markers in gynecological cancer,” Histology and histopathology, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1607–1615, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  325. M. Turunen, A. Talvensaari-Mattila, Y. Soini, and M. Santala, “Claudin-5 overexpression correlates with aggressive behavior in serous ovarian adenocarcinoma,” Anticancer Research, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 5185–5189, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  326. X. Yuan, X. Lin, G. Manorek, and S. B. Howell, “Challenges associated with the targeted delivery of gelonin to claudin-expressing cancer cells with the use of activatable cell penetrating peptides to enhance potency,” BMC Cancer, vol. 11, p. 61, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  327. A. Bovicelli, G. D'Andrilli, and A. Giordano, “New players in ovarian cancer,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 226, no. 10, pp. 2500–2504, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  328. H. P. Beck, T. Kohn, S. Rubenstein et al., “Discovery of potent LPA2 (EDG4) antagonists as potential anticancer agents,” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 1037–1041, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  329. T. Bese, M. Barbaros, E. Baykara et al., “Comparison of total plasma lysophosphatidic acid and serum CA-125 as a tumor marker in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer,” Journal of Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 248–254, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  330. K. U. Choi, J. S. Yun, I. H. Lee et al., “Lysophosphatidic acid-induced expression of periostin in stromal cells: prognoistic relevance of periostin expression in epithelial ovarian cancer,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 128, no. 2, pp. 332–342, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  331. C. H. Chou, L. H. Wei, M. L. Kuo et al., “Up-regulation of interleukin-6 in human ovarian cancer cell via a Gi/PI3K-Akt/NF-κB pathway by lysophosphatidic acid, an ovarian cancer-activating factor,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 45–52, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  332. E. S. Jeon, S. C. Heo, I. H. Lee et al., “Ovarian cancer-derived lysophosphatidic acid stimulates secretion of VEGF and stromal cell-derived factor-1α from human mesenchymal stem cells,” Experimental and Molecular Medicine, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 280–293, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  333. E. K. Kim, J. M. Park, S. Lim et al., “Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase is essential for lysophosphatidic acid-induced cell migration in ovarian cancer cells,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 286, no. 27, pp. 24036–24045, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  334. M. Murph, T. Tanaka, S. Liu, and G. B. Mills, “Of spiders and crabs: the emergence of lysophospholipids and their metabolic pathways as targets for therapy in cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 12, no. 22, pp. 6598–6602, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  335. R. A. Oyesanya, S. Greenbaum, D. Dang et al., “Differential requirement of the epidermal growth factor receptor for G protein-mediated activation of transcription factors by lysophosphatidic acid,” Molecular Cancer, vol. 9, article no. 8, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  336. N. A. Said, I. Najwer, M. J. Socha, D. J. Fulton, S. C. Mok, and K. Motamed, “SPARC inhibits LPA-mediated mesothelial-ovarian cancer cell crosstalk,” Neoplasia, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 23–35, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  337. I. Sedláková, J. Vávrová, J. Tošner, and L. Hanousek, “Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)—a perspective marker in ovarian cancer,” Tumor Biology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 311–316, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  338. J. H. Seo, K. J. Jeong, W. J. Oh et al., “Lysophosphatidic acid induces STAT3 phosphorylation and ovarian cancer cell motility: their inhibition by curcumin,” Cancer Letters, vol. 288, no. 1, pp. 50–56, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  339. S. Yu, M. M. Murph, Y. Lu et al., “Lysophosphatidic acid receptors determine tumorigenicity and aggressiveness of ovarian cancer cells,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 100, no. 22, pp. 1630–1642, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  340. K. L. Abbott, J. M. Lim, L. Wells, B. B. Benigno, J. F. McDonald, and M. Pierce, “Identification of candidate biomarkers with cancerspecific glycosylation in the tissue and serum of endometrioid ovarian cancer patients by glycoproteomic analysis,” Proteomics, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 470–481, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  341. B. N. Misa, Z. Gengyin, L. Yaqiong et al., “Novel isoforms of periostin expressed in the human thyroid,” Japanese Clinical Medicine, vol. 1, pp. 13–20, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  342. L. Gillan, D. Matei, D. A. Fishman, C. S. Gerbin, B. Y. Karlan, and D. D. Chang, “Periostin secreted by epithelial ovarian carcinoma is a ligand for αVβ3 and αVβ5 integrins and promotes cell motility,” Cancer Research, vol. 62, no. 18, pp. 5358–5364, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  343. K. Ruan, S. Bao, and G. Ouyang, “The multifaceted role of periostin in tumorigenesis,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 66, no. 14, pp. 2219–2230, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  344. M. Zhu, M. S. Fejzo, L. Anderson et al., “Periostin promotes ovarian cancer angiogenesis and metastasis,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 119, no. 2, pp. 337–344, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  345. M. Zhu, R. E. Saxton, L. Ramos et al., “Neutralizing monoclonal antibody to periostin inhibits ovarian tumor growth and metastasis,” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1500–1508, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  346. E. Bandiera, L. Zanotti, E. Bignotti et al., “Human kallikrein 5: an interesting novel biomarker in ovarian cancer patients that elicits humoral response,” International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1015–1021, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  347. J. Batra, O. L. Tan, T. O'Mara et al., “Kallikrein-related peptidase 10 (KLK10) expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms in ovarian cancer survival,” International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 529–536, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  348. J. Bayani, M. Paliouras, C. Planque et al., “Impact of cytogenetic and genomic aberrations of the kallikrein locus in ovarian cancer,” Molecular Oncology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 250–260, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  349. C. A. Borgoño, T. Kishi, A. Scorilas et al., “Human kallikrein 8 protein is a favorable prognostic marker in ovarian cancer,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 1487–1493, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  350. N. Emami and E. P. Diamandis, “Human tissue kallikreins: a road under construction,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 381, no. 1, pp. 78–84, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  351. S. C.L. Koh, K. Razvi, Y. H. Chan et al., “The association with age, human tissue kallikreins 6 and 10 and hemostatic markers for survival outcome from epithelial ovarian cancer,” Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 284, no. 1, pp. 183–190, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  352. P. Kountourakis, A. Psyrri, A. Scorilas et al., “Prognostic value of kallikrein-related peptidase 6 protein expression levels in advanced ovarian cancer evaluated by automated quantitative analysis (AQUA),” Cancer Science, vol. 99, no. 11, pp. 2224–2229, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  353. P. Kountourakis, A. Psyrri, A. Scorilas et al., “Expression and prognostic significance of kallikrein-related peptidase 8 protein levels in advanced ovarian cancer by using automated quantitative analysis,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 541–546, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  354. U. Kuzmanov, N. Jiang, C. R. Smith, A. Soosaipillai, and E. P. Diamandis, “Differential N-glycosylation of kallikrein 6 derived from ovarian cancer cells or the central nervous system,” Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 791–798, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  355. L. Y. Luo, S. J. C. Shan, M. B. Elliott, A. Soosaipillai, and E. P. Diamandis, “Purification and characterization of human kallikrein 11, a candidate prostate and ovarian cancer biomarker, from seminal plasma,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 742–750, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  356. L. Y. Luo, A. Soosaipillai, L. Grass, and E. P. Diamandis, “Characterization of human kallikreins 6 and 10 in ascites fluid from ovarian cancer patients,” Tumor Biology, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 227–234, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  357. K. Oikonomopoulou, I. Batruch, C. R. Smith, A. Soosaipillai, E. P. Diamandis, and M. D. Hollenberg, “Functional proteomics of kallikrein-related peptidases in ovarian cancer ascites fluid,” Biological Chemistry, vol. 391, no. 4, pp. 381–390, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  358. K. Oikonomopoulou, A. Scorilas, I. P. Michael et al., “Kallikreins as markers of disseminated tumour cells in ovarian cancer—a pilot study,” Tumor Biology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 104–114, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  359. P. Prezas, M. J. E. Arlt, P. Viktorov et al., “Overexpression of the human tissue kallikrein genes KLK4, 5, 6, and 7 increases the malignant phenotype of ovarian cancer cells,” Biological Chemistry, vol. 387, no. 6, pp. 807–811, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  360. S. J. C. Shan, A. Scorilas, D. Katsaros, and E. P. Diamandis, “Transcriptional upregulation of human tissue kallikrein 6 in ovarian cancer: clinical and mechanistic aspects,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 362–372, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  361. S. J. C. Shan, A. Scorilas, D. Katsaros, I. Rigault De La Longrais, M. Massobrio, and E. P. Diamandis, “Unfavorable prognostic value of human kallikrein 7 quantified by ELISA in ovarian cancer cytosols,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 1879–1886, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  362. I. M. Shih, R. Salani, M. Fiegl et al., “Ovarian cancer specific kallikrein profile in effusions,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 501–507, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  363. N. M. A. White, T. F. F. Chow, S. Mejia-Guerrero et al., “Three dysregulated miRNAs control kallikrein 10 expression and cell proliferation in ovarian cancer,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 102, no. 8, pp. 1244–1253, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  364. N. M. A. White, M. Mathews, G. M. Yousef et al., “Human kallikrein related peptidases 6 and 13 in combination with CA125 is a more sensitive test for ovarian cancer than CA125 alone,” Cancer Biomarkers, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 279–287, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  365. G. M. Yousef and E. P. Diamandis, “The human kallikrein gene family: new biomarkers for ovarian cancer,” Cancer Treatment and Research, vol. 149, pp. 165–187, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  366. T. A. Edgell, D. L. Barraclough, A. Rajic et al., “Increased plasma concentrations of anterior gradient 2 protein are positively associated with ovarian cancer,” Clinical Science, vol. 118, no. 12, pp. 717–725, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  367. G. E. Rice, T. A. Edgell, and D. J. Autelitano, “Evaluation of midkine and anterior gradient 2 in a multimarker panel for the detection of ovarian cancer,” Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 29, no. 1, article no. 62, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  368. Z. Wang, Y. Hao, and A. W. Lowe, “The adenocarcinoma-associated antigen, AGR2, promotes tumor growth, cell migration, and cellular transformation,” Cancer Research, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 492–497, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  369. N. S. Anderson, Y. Bermudez, D. Badgwell et al., “Urinary levels of Bcl-2 are elevated in ovarian cancer patients,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 60–67, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  370. P. Chaudhry, R. Srinivasan, and F. D. Patel, “Expression of the major fas family and Bcl-2 family of proteins in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and their correlation to chemotherapeutic response and outcome,” Oncology Research, vol. 18, no. 11-12, pp. 549–559, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  371. R. Brunmeir, S. Lagger, and C. Seiser, “Histone deacetylase 1 and 2-controlled embryonic development and cell differentiation,” International Journal of Developmental Biology, vol. 53, no. 2-3, pp. 275–289, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  372. K. C. Chao, C. C. Chang, M. S. Yen, and P. H. Wang, “Anti-tumor activity of histone deacetylase inhibitors and the effect on ATP-binding cassette in ovarian carcinoma cells,” European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 402–410, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  373. C. Conti, E. Leo, G. S. Eichler et al., “Inhibition of histone deacetylase in cancer cells slows down replication forks, activates dormant origins, and induces DNA damage,” Cancer Research, vol. 70, no. 11, pp. 4470–4480, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  374. M. Haberland, R. L. Montgomery, and E. N. Olson, “The many roles of histone deacetylases in development and physiology: implications for disease and therapy,” Nature Reviews Genetics, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 32–42, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  375. A. Hayashi, A. Horiuchi, N. Kikuchi et al., “Type-specific roles of histone deacetylase (HDAC) overexpression in ovarian carcinoma: HDAC1 enhances cell proliferation and HDAC3 stimulates cell migration with downregulation of E-cadherin,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 127, no. 6, pp. 1332–1346, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  376. H. S. Jeon, M. Y. Ahn, J. H. Park et al., “Anticancer effects of the MHY218 novel hydroxamic acid-derived histone deacetylase inhibitor in human ovarian cancer cells,” International Journal of Oncology, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 419–428, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  377. A. A. Lane and B. A. Chabner, “Histone deacetylase inhibitors in cancer therapy,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 32, pp. 5459–5468, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  378. Y. Luo, W. Jian, D. Stavreva et al., “Trans-regulation of histone deacetylase activities through acetylation,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 284, no. 50, pp. 34901–34910, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  379. X. Ma, H. H. Ezzeldin, and R. B. Diasio, “Histone deacetylase inhibitors: current status and overview of recent clinical trials,” Drugs, vol. 69, no. 14, pp. 1911–1934, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  380. P. A. Marks and W. S. Xu, “Histone deacetylase inhibitors: potential in cancer therapy,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 107, no. 4, pp. 600–608, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  381. S. Chiocca and C. V. Segré, “Regulating the regulators: the post-translational code of class i HDAC1 and HDAC2,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2011, Article ID 690848, 15 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  382. N. Takai and H. Narahara, “Preclinical studies of chemotherapy using histone deacetylase inhibitors in endometrial cancer,” Obstetrics and Gynecology International, vol. 2010, Article ID 923824, 8 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  383. T. Ueda, N. Takai, M. Nishida, K. Nasu, and H. Narahara, “Apicidin, a novel histone deacetylase inhibitor, has profound anti-growth activity in human endometrial and ovarian cancer cells,” International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 301–308, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  384. D. Willis-Martinez, H. W. Richards, N. A. Timchenko, and E. E. Medrano, “Role of HDAC1 in senescence, aging, and cancer,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 279–285, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  385. R. H. Wilting, E. Yanover, M. R. Heideman et al., “Overlapping functions of Hdac1 and Hdac2 in cell cycle regulation and haematopoiesis,” EMBO Journal, vol. 29, no. 15, pp. 2586–2597, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  386. T. Yamaguchi, F. Cubizolles, Y. Zhang et al., “Histone deacetylases 1 and 2 act in concert to promote the G1-to-S progression,” Genes and Development, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 455–469, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  387. C. L. Bartels and G. J. Tsongalis, “Mini-reviews micrornas:novel biomarkers for human cancer,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 623–631, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  388. K. D. Cowden Dahl, R. Dahl, J. N. Kruichak, and L. G. Hudson, “The epidermal growth factor receptor responsive miR-125a represses mesenchymal morphology in ovarian cancer cells,” Neoplasia, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1208–1215, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  389. C. J. Creighton, M. D. Fountain, Z. Yu et al., “Molecular profiling uncovers a p53-associated role for microRNA-31 in inhibiting the proliferation of serous ovarian carcinomas and other cancers,” Cancer Research, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 1906–1915, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  390. Z. Li, S. Hu, J. Wang et al., “MiR-27a modulates MDR1/P-glycoprotein expression by targeting HIPK2 in human ovarian cancer cells,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 125–130, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  391. J. Lu, G. Getz, E. A. Miska et al., “MicroRNA expression profiles classify human cancers,” Nature, vol. 435, no. 7043, pp. 834–838, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  392. N. Rosenfeld, R. Aharonov, E. Meiri et al., “MicroRNAs accurately identify cancer tissue origin,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 462–469, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  393. A. Sorrentino, C. G. Liu, A. Addario, C. Peschle, G. Scambia, and C. Ferlini, “Role of microRNAs in drug-resistant ovarian cancer cells,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 478–486, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  394. H. Yang, W. Kong, L. He et al., “MicroRNA expression profiling in human ovarian cancer: miR-214 induces cell survival and cisplatin resistance by targeting PTEN,” Cancer Research, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 425–433, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  395. N. Yang, S. Kaur, S. Volinia et al., “MicroRNA microarray identifies Let-7i as a novel biomarker and therapeutic target in human epithelial ovarian cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 68, no. 24, pp. 10307–10314, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  396. L. Zhang, S. Volinia, T. Bonome et al., “Genomic and epigenetic alterations deregulate microRNA expression in human epithelial ovarian cancer,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 19, pp. 7004–7009, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  397. J. LoPiccolo, G. M. Blumenthal, W. B. Bernstein, and P. A. Dennis, “Targeting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway: effective combinations and clinical considerations,” Drug Resistance Updates, vol. 11, no. 1-2, pp. 32–50, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  398. D. A. Altomare, Q. W. Hui, K. L. Skele et al., “AKT and mTOR phosphorylation is frequently detected in ovarian cancer and can be targeted to disrupt ovarian tumor cell growth,” Oncogene, vol. 23, no. 34, pp. 5853–5857, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  399. P. Dent, S. Grant, P. B. Fisher, and D. T. Curiel, “PI3K: a rational target for ovarian cancer therapy?” Cancer Biology and Therapy, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 27–30, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  400. X. Fan, D. D. Ross, H. Arakawa, V. Ganapathy, I. Tamai, and T. Nakanishi, “Impact of system L amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) on proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells: a possible target for combination therapy with anti-proliferative aminopeptidase inhibitors,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 811–818, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  401. M. Harasawa, M. Yasuda, T. Hirasawa et al., “Analysis of mTOR inhibition-involved pathway in ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma,” Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 113–118, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  402. R. Rattan, S. Giri, L. C. Hartmann, and V. Shridhar, “Metformin attenuates ovarian cancer cell growth in an AMP-kinase dispensable manner,” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 166–178, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  403. X. B. Trinh, P. A. Van Dam, L. Y. Dirix, P. B. Vermeulen, and W. A. A. Tjalma, “The rationale for mTOR inhibition in epithelial ovarian cancer,” Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1885–1891, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  404. S. Arao, H. Suwa, M. Mandai et al., “Expression of multidrug resistance gene and localization of P- glycoprotein in human primary ovarian cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 1355–1359, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  405. H. Gréen, P. Söderkvist, P. Rosenberg, G. Horvath, and C. Peterson, “mdr-1 single nucleotide polymorphisms in ovarian cancer tissue: G2677T/A correlates with response to paclitaxel chemotherapy,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 12, no. 3 I, pp. 854–859, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  406. A. Richardson and S. B. Kaye, “Drug resistance in ovarian cancer: the emerging importance of gene transcription and spatio-temporal regulation of resistance,” Drug Resistance Updates, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 311–321, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  407. M. M. Baekelandt, R. Holm, J. M. Nesland, C. G. Tropé, and G. B. Kristensen, “P-glycoprotein expression is a marker for chemotherapy resistance and prognosis in advanced ovarian cancer,” Anticancer Research, vol. 20, no. 2 B, pp. 1061–1067, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  408. G. Chenevix-Trench, S. E. Johnatty, J. Beesley et al., “ABCB1 (MDR 1) polymorphisms and progression-free survival among women with ovarian cancer following paclitaxel/carboplatin chemotherapy,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 14, no. 17, pp. 5594–5601, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  409. S. Hille, D. T. Rein, M. Riffelmann et al., “Anticancer drugs induce mdr1 gene expression in recurrent ovarian cancer,” Anti-Cancer Drugs, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1041–1044, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  410. Z. Duan, K. A. Brakora, and M. V. Seiden, “Inhibition of ABCB1 (MDR1) and ABCB4 (MDR3) expression by small interfering RNA and reversal resistance in human ovarian cancer cells,” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 833–838, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  411. H. Xing, S. Wang, D. Weng et al., “Knock-down of P-glycoprotein reverses taxol resistance in ovarian cancer multicellular spheroids,” Oncology Reports, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 117–122, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  412. S. Miettinen, S. Grènman, and T. Ylikomi, “Inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated docetaxel efflux sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to concomitant docetaxel and SN-38 exposure,” Anticancer Drugs, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 267–276, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  413. P. Zahedi, R. de Souza, L. Huynh, M. Piquette-Miller, and C. Allen, “Combination drug delivery strategy for the treatment of multidrug resistant ovarian cancer,” Molecular Pharmaceutics, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 260–269, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  414. Y. Yang, Z. Wang, M. Li, and S. Lu, “Chitosan/pshRNA plasmid nanoparticles targeting MDR1 gene reverse paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer cells,” Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 239–242, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  415. D. C. Hiss, G. A. Gabriels, and P. I. Folb, “Combination of tunicamycin with anticancer drugs synergistically enhances their toxicity in multidrug-resistant human ovarian cystadenocarcinoma cells,” Cancer Cell International, vol. 7, article no. 5, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  416. C. Grimm, S. Polterauer, R. Zeillinger et al., “Two multidrug-resistance (ABCB1) gene polymorphisms as prognostic parameters in women with ovarian cancer,” Anticancer Research, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 3487–3491, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  417. A. H. Ludwig and J. Kupryjańczyk, “Does MDR-1 G2677T/A polymorphism really associate with ovarian cancer response to paclitaxel chemotherapy?” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 12, no. 20, part 1, pp. 6204–6205, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  418. S. E. Johnatty, J. Beesley, J. Paul et al., “ABCB1 (MDR 1) polymorphisms and progression-free survival among women with ovarian cancer following paclitaxel/carboplatin chemotherapy,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 14, no. 17, pp. 5594–5601, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  419. K. Ikeda, K. Sakai, R. Yamamoto et al., “Multivariate analysis for prognostic significance of histologic subtype, GST-pi, MDR-1, and p53 in stages II-IV ovarian cancer,” International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 776–784, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  420. L. Lu, D. Katsaros, A. Wiley, I. A. Rigault De La Longrais, M. Puopolo, and H. Yu, “Expression of MDR1 in epithelial ovarian cancer and its association with disease progression,” Oncology Research, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 395–403, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  421. K. Matsuo, M. L. Eno, E. H. Ahn et al., “Multidrug resistance gene (MDR-1) and risk of brain metastasis in epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer,” American Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 488–493, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  422. C. Peng, X. Zhang, H. Yu, D. Wu, and J. Zheng, “Wnt5a as a predictor in poor clinical outcome of patients and a mediator in chemoresistance of ovarian cancer,” International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 280–288, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed