Adamantyl Retinoid-Related Molecules Induce Apoptosis in Pancreatic Cancer Cells by Inhibiting IGF-1R and Wnt/β-Catenin Pathways
3-Cl-AHPC- and AHP3-mediated proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in pancreatic cancer cell lines. The cells were exposed to 1 μM 3-Cl-AHPC or AHP3 for various times. (a) Proliferation inhibition was evaluated by MTT assay as described Section 2 and expressed as absorbance (OD) measured at 570 nm. The error bars represent the mean of three separate determinations ± the standard deviation (SD). (b) Induction of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells by 3-Cl-AHPC and AHP3. Cells were seeded at 1 × 104 cells/mL and grown for 24 h and then exposed to 1 μM AHP3 or 3-Cl-AHPC for indicated times. Induction of apoptosis and cell death was assessed using Annexin V-FITC labeling with propidium iodide (PI) staining in COLO357, PANC-1, Capan-2 AsPc-1, or acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining in MiaPaCa-2. The error bars represent the mean of three separate determinations ± the standard deviation (SD). All treated samples are significantly different from vehicle control.
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