Adamantyl Retinoid-Related Molecules Induce Apoptosis in Pancreatic Cancer Cells by Inhibiting IGF-1R and Wnt/β-Catenin Pathways
3-Cl-AHPC and AHP induced apoptosis in PANC-1 CD44+/CD24+ cells and 3-Cl-AHPC decreased expression of IGF-1R, cyclin D1, and β-catenin in pancreatic cancer cells. (a) Percentage of total apoptotic cells. (b) Percentage of CD44+/CD24+ cells in the early (Annexin V-FITC positive and PI negative) or late (Annexin V-FITC positive and PI positive) apoptotic cell populations. (c) Percentage of total CD44+/CD24+ apoptotic cells (Annexin V-FITC positive and PI positive). Cells were treated with 1.0 μM 3-Cl-AHPC and AHP3 for 96 h. Antibody-conjugated markers CD44-APC-Cy7, CD24-APC, Annexin V-FITC, and PI were used to detect apoptotic and CD44+/CD24+ cells from the same samples. The error bars represent the mean of three separate determinations ± the standard deviation. ((d), (e)) IGF-1R, cyclin D1, and β-catenin expression decreased following 3-Cl-AHPC exposure in pancreatic cancer cells.
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