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Journal of Oncology
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 5035371, 15 pages
Review Article

Desired Turbulence? Gut-Lung Axis, Immunity, and Lung Cancer

1University of Clermont-Auvergne, UMR 1019 INRA-UCA, Human Nutrition Unit (UNH), ECREIN Team, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
2Jean Perrin Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Thoracic Surgery Unit, 63011 Clermont-Ferrand, France
3University of Clermont-Auvergne, Jean Perrin Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Department of Pathology, INSERM U1240 Molecular Imaging and Theranostic Strategies, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
4Greentech SA, Biopôle Clermont-Limagne, 63360 Saint-Beauzire, France
5INRA, UR454 Microbiology Unit, Clermont-Ferrand/Theix Research Centre, 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France
6Jean Perrin Comprehensive Cancer Centre, CHU Gabriel-Montpied, Human Nutrition Unit (UNH), CRNH Auvergne, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
7CIAMS, University Paris-Sud, University Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France
8CIAMS, University of Orléans, 45067 Orléans, France

Correspondence should be addressed to Edith Filaire

Received 8 March 2017; Revised 30 June 2017; Accepted 3 August 2017; Published 17 September 2017

Academic Editor: James L. Mulshine

Copyright © 2017 Rea Bingula et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The microbiota includes different microorganisms consisting of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and protozoa distributed over many human body surfaces including the skin, vagina, gut, and airways, with the highest density found in the intestine. The gut microbiota strongly influences our metabolic, endocrine, and immune systems, as well as both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Recently, a dialogue between the gut and lung microbiota has been discovered, suggesting that changes in one compartment could impact the other compartment, whether in relation to microbial composition or function. Further, this bidirectional axis is evidenced in an, either beneficial or malignant, altered immune response in one compartment following changes in the other compartment. Stimulation of the immune system arises from the microbial cells themselves, but also from their metabolites. It can be either direct or mediated by stimulated immune cells in one site impacting the other site. Additionally, this interaction may lead to immunological boost, assisting the innate immune system in its antitumour response. Thus, this review offers an insight into the composition of these sites, the gut and the lung, their role in shaping the immune system, and, finally, their role in the response to lung cancer.