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Journal of Oncology
Volume 2017, Article ID 9684909, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9684909
Review Article

Tumor Lysis Syndrome in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

1Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
2Department of Hematology & Immunohematology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
3Department of Clinical Chemistry, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

Correspondence should be addressed to Bamlaku Enawgaw; moc.liamg@12kalmab

Received 4 July 2017; Revised 1 October 2017; Accepted 12 October 2017; Published 2 November 2017

Academic Editor: Akira Hara

Copyright © 2017 Yohannes Belay et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Tumor lysis syndrome is a metabolic complication that may follow the initiation of cancer therapy. It commonly occurs in hematological malignant patients particularly non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and acute leukemia due to chemotherapy or spontaneously. It is characterized by a biochemical abnormality such as hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia and its clinical outcome is directly related to these biochemical abnormalities. Prevention and treatment of tumor lysis syndrome depend on immediate recognition of patients at risk. Therefore, identifying patients at risk and prophylactic measures are important to minimize the clinical consequences of tumor lysis syndrome. Patients with low risk should receive hydration and allopurinol. On the other hand patients with high risk should receive hydration and rasburicase in an inpatient setting. It is important to start therapy immediately, to correct all parameters before cancer treatment, to assess risk level of patients for TLS, and to select treatment options based on the risk level. In this review a comprehensive search of literatures was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed, Hinari, the Cochrane library, and Google Scholar to summarize diagnostic criteria, incidence, predicting factors, prevention, and treatment options for tumor lysis syndrome in patients with hematological malignancies.