Table 3: Breast care characteristics prior to breast cancer diagnosis and tumor clinicopathologic features among Black women aged 40-75 years in the WCHS, overall and by initial mode of breast cancer detection.

OverallScreening mammogramClinical breast examSelf-detectionP-value
(N = 1643)(n = 725)(n = 63)(n = 534)
N ()n()n()n()

Breast care characteristics prior to breast cancer diagnosis
Ever received a doctor’s recommendation for a mammogram before breast cancer diagnosis<0.001
 No274 (20.7)103 (14.2)16 (25.4)155 (29.0)
 Yes1045 (79.1)620 (85.5)47 (74.6)378 (70.8)
Ever had a routine screening mammogram before breast cancer diagnosis<0.001
 No174 (13.2)37 (5.1)16 (25.4)121 (22.7)
 Yes1148 (86.8)688 (94.9)47 (74.6)413 (77.3)
Interval between breast cancer diagnosis and most recent routine screening mammogram<0.001
 <1 year112 (8.5)66 (9.1)4 (6.4)42 (7.9)
 1 year565 (42.7)382 (52.7)17 (27.0)166 (31.1)
 >1 year377 (28.5)186 (25.7)17 (27.0)174 (32.6)
 Unknown268 (20.3)91 (12.6)25 (39.7)152 (28.5)
Ever had a doctor perform a clinical breast exam(s) (CBE) before breast cancer diagnosis<0.001
 No183 (13.8)91 (12.6)4 (6.4)88 (16.5)
 Yes – last CBE performed within the last year795 (60.1)482 (66.5)35 (55.6)278 (52.1)
 Yes – last CBE performed more than one year ago332 (25.1)146 (20.1)23 (36.5)163 (30.5)
Ever performed breast self-exams (BSEs) before breast cancer diagnosis<0.001
 No283 (21.4)197 (27.2)25 (39.7)61 (11.4)
 Yes – BSEs performed less than once per month375 (28.4)184 (25.4)24 (38.1)167 (31.3)
 Yes – BSEs performed at least once per month657 (49.7)338 (46.6)14 (22.2)305 (57.1)
Ever diagnosed with a benign breast disease before breast cancer diagnosis0.042
 No839 (63.5)443 (61.1)42 (66.7)354 (66.3)
 Yes476 (36.0)281 (38.8)20 (31.8)175 (32.8)
Breast tumor clinicopathologic features
Tumor grade<0.001
 Well/moderately differentiated608 (46.0)357 (49.2)36 (57.1)215 (40.3)
 Poorly differentiated483 (36.5)178 (24.6)22 (34.9)283 (53.0)
 Unknown231 (17.5)190 (26.2)5 (7.9)36 (6.7)
SEER summary stage<0.001
 In situ166 (12.6)144 (19.9)2 (3.2)20 (3.8)
 Localized718 (54.3)427 (58.9)37 (58.7)254 (47.6)
 Regional/distant376 (28.4)115 (15.9)23 (36.5)238 (44.6)
 Unstaged15 (1.1)5 (0.7)1 (1.6)9 (1.7)
 Missing47 (3.6)34 (4.7)0 (0.0)13 (2.4)
Tumor size (cm)<0.001
 <1.0509 (38.5)413 (57.0)15 (23.8)81 (15.2)
 1.0-2.0356 (26.9)196 (27.0)22 (34.9)138 (25.8)
 >2.0456 (34.5)115 (15.9)26 (41.3)315 (59.0)
 Unknown1 (0.1)1 (0.1)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
Lymph node status<0.001
 Negative814 (61.6)500 (69.0)38 (60.3)276 (51.7)
 Positive378 (28.6)119 (16.4)21 (33.3)238 (44.6)
 Unknown130 (9.8)106 (14.6)4 (6.4)20 (3.8)
Lymphovascular invasion present<0.001
 No856 (64.8)487 (67.2)45 (71.4)324 (60.7)
 Yes207 (15.7)59 (8.1)11 (17.5)137 (25.7)
 Unknown259 (19.6)179 (24.7)7 (11.1)73 (13.7)
Estrogen receptor (ER) status<0.001
 ER+972 (73.5)573 (79.0)56 (88.9)343 (64.2)
 ER-346 (26.2)148 (20.4)7 (11.1)191 (35.8)
 Unknown4 (0.3)4 (0.6)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
Molecular <0.001
 ER+/PR+/HER2-745 (56.4)431 (59.5)44 (69.8)270 (50.6)
 ER+/PR+/HER2+127 (9.6)56 (7.7)10 (15.9)61 (11.4)
 ER-/PR-/HER2+78 (5.9)33 (4.6)1 (1.6)44 (8.2)
 ER-/PR-/HER2-234 (17.7)92 (12.7)6 (9.5)136 (25.5)
 Unknown138 (10.4)113 (15.6)2 (3.2)23 (4.3)

Molecular subtypes were classified using surrogate classifications, based on immunohistochemistry expression of ER and PR, and overexpression of HER2 (by immunohistochemistry and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization) as reported in pathology records.