Table 4: Age-adjusted associations of sociodemographic, reproductive characteristics and medical history with initial mode of breast cancer detection among Black women aged 40-75 years.

Clinical breast exam compared to screening mammogramSelf-detection compared to screening mammogram
Age-adjustedAge-adjusted
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)

Marital
 Married or living as married1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
 Unmarried1.25 (0.70, 2.24)1.27 (0.99, 1.63)
Education
 High school/vocational/technical graduate or below0.97 (0.5, 1.86)1.10 (0.82, 1.46)
 Some post-secondary education0.93 (0.43, 2.01)1.31 (0.95, 1.81)
 College graduate or above1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
Annual household
 <$70,0001.37 (0.73, 2.58)1.46 (1.12, 1.91)
 ≥$70,0001.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
Primary health insurance at
 Private1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
 Medicaid1.30 (0.52, 3.26)1.14 (0.75, 1.74)
 Medicare1.47 (0.62, 3.49)0.78 (0.51, 1.18)
 Uninsured1.14 (0.38, 3.37)2.16 (1.44, 3.25)
 Other0.27 (0.04, 2.04)0.76 (0.45, 1.27)
Menopausal Status
 Premenopausal2.68 (1.07, 6.71)0.98 (0.66, 1.48)
 Postmenopausal1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
Age at menarche (years)
 <120.41 (0.17, 0.99)0.90 (0.65, 1.25)
 12-130.87 (0.45, 1.66)0.90 (0.67, 1.22)
 >131.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
Parity
 Nulliparous1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
 1-2 children1.59 (0.59, 4.25)0.88 (0.63, 1.24)
 ≥3 children2.42 (0.88, 6.63)1.10 (0.77, 1.59)
Age at first birth (years)
 Nulliparous1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
 <251.84 (0.69, 4.91)1.06 (0.75, 1.48)
 25-302.20 (0.75, 6.46)0.93 (0.62, 1.41)
 >301.59 (0.49, 5.19)0.69 (0.44, 1.09)
History of breastfeeding
 Nulliparous1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
 No2.29 (0.86, 6.08)1.03 (0.73, 1.46)
 Yes1.54 (0.55, 4.28)0.90 (0.63, 1.28)
History of oral contraceptive use
 No1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
 Yes0.62 (0.34, 1.12)0.89 (0.68, 1.17)
History of hormone therapy use
 No1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
 Yes0.52 (0.21, 1.28)0.65 (0.46, 0.92)
Family history of breast cancer
 No1.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)
 Yes1.05 (0.51, 2.16)0.96 (0.7, 1.31)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 <25.01.2 (0.52, 2.78)1.56 (1.09, 2.22)
 25.0-29.990.69 (0.31, 1.51)0.79 (0.57, 1.09)
 30.0-34.991.01 (0.48, 2.16)0.72 (0.51, 1.02)
 ≥35.01.00 (Referent)1.00 (Referent)

The unmarried category is composed of those who reported being single/never married, separated, divorced, or widowed.
$70,000 is the median income among households in New Jersey and was used as the cut-point to dichotomize the income variable.
The “other” insurance category includes forms of insurance reported by WCHS participants that did not fall into one of the four main categories above and included the following types of insurance coverage: school-provided, national government-provided [foreign country], spousal insurance, health center care, charity care, health savings account, and Veterans Affairs coverage.