Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Oncology
Volume 2019, Article ID 6280347, 6 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/6280347
Review Article

Liver Metastases and Histological Growth Patterns: Biological Behavior and Potential Clinical Implications—Another Path to Individualized Medicine?

1Pathology Department, Centro Hospitalar e Univeristário de Coimbra, 3000-075, Coimbra, Portugal
2Biophysics Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
3Coimbra Institute for Clinical and Biomedical Research (iCBR) area of Environment Genetics and Oncobiology (CIMAGO), Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
4Surgery Department, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, 3000-075, Coimbra, Portugal
5Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548, Coimbra, Portugal

Correspondence should be addressed to Rui Caetano Oliveira; moc.liamtoh@arievilocordepiur

Received 3 August 2018; Revised 24 December 2018; Accepted 12 February 2019; Published 25 February 2019

Academic Editor: Akira Hara

Copyright © 2019 Rui Caetano Oliveira et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. A. Centeno, “Pathology of liver metastases,” Cancer Control, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 13–26, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. Kawada, S. Hasegawa, T. Murakami et al., “Molecular mechanisms of liver metastasis,” International Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 464–472, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. R. P. Jones, N. Kokudo, G. Folprecht et al., “Colorectal liver metastases: a critical review of state of the art,” Liver Cancer, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 66–71, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. G. Torzilli, R. Adam, L. Viganò et al., “Surgery of colorectal liver metastases: pushing the limits,” Liver Cancer, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 80–89, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. M. Hagness et al., “Liver transplantation for nonresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 257, pp. 800–806, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  6. R. P. Jones, R. Jackson, D. F. J. Dunne et al., “Systematic review and meta-analysis of follow-up after hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 477–486, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. U. Jang, C. W. Kim, K.-H. Kim et al., “Prognostic factors in terms of the number of metastatic nodules in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases,” Annals of Coloproctology, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 92–100, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. Mise, T. A. Aloia, K. W. Brudvik, L. Schwarz, J.-N. Vauthey, and C. Conrad, “Parenchymal-sparing hepatectomy in colorectal liver metastasis improves salvageability and survival,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 263, no. 1, pp. 146–152, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. Martins, H. Alexandrino, R. Oliveira et al., “Sinusoidal dilation increases the risk of complications in hepatectomy for CRCLM – Protective effect of bevacizumab and diabetes mellitus, serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase as predictive factor,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology (EJSO), vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 713–721, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. P. B. Vermeulen, C. Colpaert, R. Salgado et al., “Liver metastases from colorectal adenocarcinomas grow in three patterns with different angiogenesis and desmoplasia,” The Journal of Pathology, vol. 195, no. 3, pp. 336–342, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. Falcão, H. Alexandrino, R. Caetano Oliveira et al., “Histopathologic patterns as markers of prognosis in patients undergoing hepatectomy for colorectal cancer liver metastases – Pushing growth as an independent risk factor for decreased survival,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 1212–1219, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. L. Rubbia-Brandt, E. Giostra, C. Brezault et al., “Importance of histological tumor response assessment in predicting the outcome in patients with colorectal liver metastases treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by liver surgery,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 299–304, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. M. Fonseca, P. Herman, S. F. Faraj et al., “Pathological factors and prognosis of resected liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma: implications and proposal for a pathological reporting protocol,” Histopathology, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 377–390, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. M. Maru, S. Kopetz, P. Boonsirikamchai et al., “Tumor thickness at the tumor-normal interface: a novel pathologic indicator of chemotherapy response in hepatic colorectal metastases,” The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1287–1294, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. M. Abengózar, M. J. Fernández-Aceñero, S. Chaves, and A. Celdrán, “Prognostic utility of tumor thickness at the tumor-normal interface in chemotherapy-treated hepatic colorectal metastasis,” Pathology - Research and Practice, vol. 208, no. 4, pp. 235–239, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. C. Katz, V. Pillarisetty, Z. M. Bamboat et al., “T cell infiltrate predicts long-term survival following resection of colorectal cancer liver metastases,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 2524–2530, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Wagner, M. Koch, D. Nummer et al., “Detection and functional analysis of tumor infiltrating T-lymphocytes (TIL) in liver metastases from colorectal cancer,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 2310–2317, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. L. Eefsen, G. G. Van den Eynden, G. Høyer-Hansen et al., “Histopathological growth pattern, proteolysis and angiogenesis in chemonaive patients resected for multiple colorectal liver metastases,” Journal of Oncology, vol. 2012, Article ID 907971, 12 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. R. L. Eefsen, L. Engelholm, W. Alpizar-Alpizar et al., “Inflammation and uPAR-expression in colorectal liver metastases in relation to growth pattern and neo-adjuvant therapy,” Cancer Microenvironment, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 93–100, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. K. Nielsen, H. C. Rolff, R. L. Eefsen, and B. Vainer, “The morphological growth patterns of colorectal liver metastases are prognostic for overall survival,” Modern Pathology, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1641–1648, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. F. Stessels, G. van den Eynden, I. van der Auwera et al., “Breast adenocarcinoma liver metastases, in contrast to colorectal cancer liver metastases, display a non-angiogenic growth pattern that preserves the stroma and lacks hypoxia,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 90, no. 7, pp. 1429–1436, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. Döme, M. J. C. Hendrix, S. Paku, J. Tóvári, and J. Tímár, “Alternative vascularization mechanisms in cancer,” The American Journal of Pathology, vol. 170, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. G. Van Den Eynden, A. W. Majeed, M. Illemann et al., “The multifaceted role of the microenvironment in liver metastasis: biology and clinical implications,” Cancer Research, vol. 73, no. 7, pp. 2031–2043, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. E. B. Rankin and A. J. Giaccia, “Hypoxic control of metastasis,” Science, vol. 352, no. 6282, pp. 175–180, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. Muz, P. de la Puente, F. Azab, and A. K. Azab, “The role of hypoxia in cancer progression, angiogenesis, metastasis, and resistance to therapy,” Hypoxia, vol. 3, no. 83, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  26. S. Frentzas et al., “Vessel co-option mediates resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy in liver metastases,” Nature Medicine, vol. 22, Article ID 12941302, pp. 1294–1302, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  27. P. Boland and W. Ma, “Immunotherapy for colorectal cancer,” Cancers , vol. 9, no. 5, p. 50, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. B. Bashir and A. E. Snook, “Immunotherapy regimens for metastatic colorectal carcinomas,” Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, vol. 14, pp. 250–254, 2018. View at Google Scholar
  29. P. Hou, T. Jiang, F. Chen et al., “KIF4A facilitates cell proliferation via induction of p21-mediated cell cycle progression and promotes metastasis in colorectal cancer,” Cell Death & Disease, vol. 9, no. 5, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. W. Huang, Y. Kuo, H. Kuo et al., “CIL-102-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells via upregulation of p21 and GADD45,” PLoS ONE, vol. 12, Article ID e0168989, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. R. Ma, Y. Feng, S. Lin et al., “Mechanisms involved in breast cancer liver metastasis,” Journal of Translational Medicine, vol. 13, no. 64, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. R. Barnhill, P. Vermeulen, S. Daelemans et al., “Replacement and desmoplastic histopathological growth patterns: A pilot study of prediction of outcome in patients with uveal melanoma liver metastases,” The Journal of Pathology: Clinical Research, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 227–240, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. J. Shindoh, E. M. Loyer, S. Kopetz et al., “Optimal morphologic response to preoperative chemotherapy: An alternate outcome end point before resection of hepatic colorectal metastases,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 30, no. 36, pp. 4566–4572, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Murata, S. Matsushima, Y. Sato et al., “Predicting chemotherapeutic response for colorectal liver metastases using relative tumor enhancement of gadoxetic acid disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging,” Abdominal Radiology, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 3301–3306, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. A. S. Becker, M. A. Schneider, M. C. Wurnig, M. Wagner, P. A. Clavien, and A. Boss, “Radiomics of liver MRI predict metastases in mice,” European Radiology Experimental, vol. 2, no. 11, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. M. A. C. Machado, F. F. Makdissi, R. C. Surjan, T. Basseres, and E. Schadde, “Transition from open to laparoscopic ALPPS for patients with very small FLR: the initial experience,” HPB, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 59–66, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. E. Schadde, V. Ardiles, K. Slankamenac et al., “ALPPS offers a better chance of complete resection in patients with primarily unresectable liver tumors compared with conventional-staged hepatectomies: results of a multicenter analysis,” World Journal of Surgery, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1510–1519, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Narita, E. Oussoultzoglou, D. Jaeck et al., “Two-stage hepatectomy for multiple bilobar colorectal liver metastases,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 98, no. 10, pp. 1463–1475, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. G. Torzilli, F. Procopio, F. Botea et al., “One-stage ultrasonographically guided hepatectomy for multiple bilobar colorectal metastases: A feasible and effective alternative to the 2-stage approach,” Surgery, vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 60–71, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. B. Nordlinger, E. Van Cutsem, P. Rougier et al., “Does chemotherapy prior to liver resection increase the potential for cure in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer? A report from the European Colorectal Metastases Treatment Group,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 43, no. 14, pp. 2037–2045, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. L. Rubbia-Brandt, V. Audard, P. Sartoretti et al., “Severe hepatic sinusoidal obstruction associated with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 460–466, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. T. Aloia, M. Sebagh, M. Plasse et al., “Liver histology and surgical outcomes after preoperative chemotherapy with fluorouracil plus oxaliplatin in colorectal cancer liver metastases,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 24, no. 31, pp. 4983–4990, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. Fernández Moro, B. Bozóky, and M. Gerling, “Growth patterns of colorectal cancer liver metastases and their impact on prognosis: a systematic review,” BMJ Open Gastroenterol, vol. 5, Article ID e000217, 2018. View at Google Scholar
  44. P. van Dam, E. P. van der Stok, L. Teuwen et al., “International consensus guidelines for scoring the histopathological growth patterns of liver metastasis,” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 117, no. 10, pp. 1427–1441, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. M. Baltatzis, A. K. C. Chan, S. Jegatheeswaran, J. M. Mason, and A. K. Siriwardena, “Colorectal cancer with synchronous hepatic metastases: Systematic review of reports comparing synchronous surgery with sequential bowel-first or liver-first approaches,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 159–165, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. H. Salvador-Rosés, S. López-Ben, M. Casellas-Robert et al., “Oncological strategies for locally advanced rectal cancer with synchronous liver metastases, interval strategy versus rectum first strategy: a comparison of short-term outcomes,” Clinical and Translational Oncology, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1018–1025, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. S. Abelson, F. Michelassi, T. Sun et al., “Simultaneous resection for synchronous colorectal liver metastasis: the new standard of care?” Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 975–982, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. Waisberg and I. G. Ivankovics, “Liver-first approach of colorectal cancer with synchronous hepatic metastases: A reverse strategy,” World Journal of Hepatology, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 1444–1449, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. P. Gervaz, L. Rubbia-Brandt, A. Andres et al., “Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer: A comparison of histological response in liver metastases, primary tumors, and regional Lymph nodes,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 2714–2719, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus