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Journal of Oncology
Volume 2019, Article ID 6313242, 13 pages
Review Article

A Perspective Review on the Role of Nanomedicine in the Modulation of TNF-TNFR2 Axis in Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

1Department of Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia
2Department of Immunology and Pathology, Monash University, Melbourne 3168, Australia
3School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 14300, Malaysia
4State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau SAR 999078, China
5School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora 3083, Australia
6Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia

Correspondence should be addressed to Rohimah Mohamud; ym.msu@mhamihor

Received 28 February 2019; Accepted 23 April 2019; Published 23 May 2019

Guest Editor: Subash C. Gupta

Copyright © 2019 Mohammad A. I. Al-Hatamleh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In the past decade, nanomedicine research has provided us with highly useful agents (nanoparticles) delivering therapeutic drugs to target cancer cells. The present review highlights nanomedicine applications for breast cancer immunotherapy. Recent studies have suggested that tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and its receptor 2 (TNFR2) expressed on breast cancer cells have important functional consequences. This cytokine/receptor interaction is also critical for promoting highly immune-suppressive phenotypes by regulatory T cells (Tregs). This review generally provides a background for nanoparticles as potential drug delivery agents for immunomodulators and further discusses in depth the potential of TNF antagonists delivery to modulate TNF-TNFR2 interactions and inhibit breast cancer progression.