The Association of General and Central Obesity with Dietary Patterns and Socioeconomic Status in Adult Women in BotswanaRead the full article
Journal of Obesity focuses on topics such as obesity, lipid metabolism, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, paediatric obesity, genetics, nutrition & eating disorders, exercise & human physiology, weight control and risks associated with obesity.
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Lipid-Induced Mechanisms of Metabolic Syndrome
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has a worldwide tendency to increase and depends on many components, which explains the complexity of diagnosis, approaches to the prevention, and treatment of this pathology. Insulin resistance (IR) is the crucial cause of the MetS pathogenesis, which develops against the background of abdominal obesity. In light of recent evidence, it has been shown that lipids, especially fatty acids (FAs), are important signaling molecules that regulate the signaling pathways of insulin and inflammatory mediators. On the one hand, the lack of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the body leads to impaired molecular mechanisms of glucose transport, the formation of unresolved inflammation. On the other hand, excessive formation of free fatty acids (FFAs) underlies the development of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in MetS. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the participation of FAs and their metabolites in the pathogenesis of MetS will contribute to the development of new diagnostic methods and targeted therapy for this disease. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in the study of the effect of fatty acids as modulators of insulin response and inflammatory process in the pathogenesis and treatment for MetS.
Overweight and Obesity Coexist with Thinness among Lao’s Urban Area Adolescents
Introduction. In recent decades, the developing countries of Southeast Asia, including the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), have experienced a rapid growth of their urban population. Partly as a result of that, issues of undernutrition and overnutrition became a significant public health problem. Objective. To examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their related factors, among the school-attending adolescents in the Lao capital of Vientiane. Methods. A cross-sectional data on 300 adolescents aged 15–19 were collected during the months of March, April, and May 2018 by means of a self-administrated questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were used to obtain data on height and weight. Pearson’s chi-squared test, Fisher exact tests, and univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were applied in the course of the statistical analysis. Results. The study found a high prevalence of overweight/obesity (23.3%) and thinness (10.3%). Poor eating habits were noted in 67.0% of adolescents, even though 78.0% of them had a good knowledge of nutrition. Factors significantly associated with the overweight/obesity were low physical activities (aOR = 18.3; 95% CI: 5.51–60.66) and adolescents living with their guardians (aOR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.08–0.79). Results also indicated that, in 47.3% of the cases, teachers, acting as a source of health and nutrition information, can prevent the risk of adolescents’ overweight/obesity (aOR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.11–3.80) but not their thinness (aOR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.17–0.88). Conclusions. Laotian adolescents are facing the spectrum of malnutrition in urban areas. To improve adolescents’ nutritional status, there is a need for a collaborative approach of public health agencies that would address the issues of an effective food and nutrition policy. The school curricula should also include programs on nutrition and physical education.
Does the Frequency of Watching Television Matters on Overweight and Obesity among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia?
Background. Studies in developed countries have revealed an association of different magnitudes between watching television and the risk of being overweight and obese among reproductive age women. Even so, there is no evidence of such an association in the context of the Ethiopian population. Hence, the study aimed to assess the association between watching television with overweight and obesity in a nationally representative sample of Ethiopian women. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted by using secondary data analysis from 2016 Ethiopia demographic and health survey among women aged from 15 to 49 years. The samples were selected using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. A total of 10,074 women were included in the analysis. The outcome variables were both overweight and obesity, whereas the main exposure variable was the frequency of watching television. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for adjusting potential confounders. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals was used to declare a statistically significant association. Results. The study found that watching television at least once a week was significantly associated with both overweight (AOR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.20–2.73) and obesity (AOR: 3.76; 95% CI: 2.04–6.95). The study also divulged that the odds of overweight were higher among women aged 25–39 years (AOR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.25–3.77) and 40–49 years (AOR: 2.69; 95% CI: 1.45–5.00), urban residents (AOR: 1.76; 95% CI:1.17–2.65), attended higher education (AOR:2.11; 95% CI: 1.22–3.65), and richest in the wealth index (AOR: 2.83; 95% CI:1.71–4.68). Similarly, the odds of obesity were higher among women aged 25–39 years and 40–49 years, attended higher education, and the richest in wealth index. Conclusions. The results from this study demonstrated that watching television at least once a week is associated with obesity among reproductive age women in Ethiopia. Therefore, a social behavioral change communication campaign needs to be taken to improve awareness regarding the harmful consequences of watching television for long hours. Further research studies should be conducted among men and adolescents to determine whether this positive association exists among that target population as well.
Optimal Cutoff Values for Anthropometric Adiposity Measures of Sri Lankan Adult Women
Anthropometric adiposity measures (AAMs) such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are used to evaluate obesity status. Country-specific cutoff values of AAMs would provide more accurate estimation of obesity prevalence. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the optimal cutoff values for AAMs, BMI, WC, hip circumference (HC), and WHR, of Sri Lankan adult women. The study was conducted in Galle, Sri Lanka, with 350 healthy community-dwelling middle-aged women aged 30–60 years, divided into two groups (Group A, n = 175 and Group B, n = 175). Total body fat percentage (TBFP) (kg) was measured with DXA. Body weight (kg), height (m), and WC and HC (cm) were measured. BMI (kg/m2) and WHR were calculated. Optimal cutoff values were determined by area under curve (AUC) in Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis using TBFP as the criterion at the TBFP level of 33% and 35% using the women in Group A. Then, the prevalence of obesity was determined in Group B while comparing the prevalence based on the cutoff values recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for Asians and the newly developed cutoff values for Sri Lankan women. Optimal cutoff values of AAMs which correspond to TBFP 33% are BMI, 24.5 kg/m2; WC, 80 cm; HC, 95 cm; and WHR, 0.83. TBFP 35% corresponds to the optimal cutoff values of BMI, 25.0 kg/m2; WC, 85 cm; HC, 100 cm; and WHR, 0.83. Prevalence of obesity (number, %) according to the WHO and newly defined cutoff values that correspond to TBFP 33% and 35% were as follows: BMI = 83 (47.4%), 98 (56.0%), 83 (47.4%); WC = 106 (60.6%), 106 (60.6%), 72 (41.1%); and WHR = 140 (80.0%), 106 (60.6%), 106 (60.6%). The observed cutoff values of BMI and WC in this study were within the ranges of those described by the WHO for Asian populations which correspond to the 33% and 35% TBFP levels, respectively. However, the WHR cutoff value of WHO (Asians) is lower when compared to the newly determined value for Sri Lankan females while overestimating the prevalence. More studies are needed to confirm these values before clinical use.
A Propensity Score Cohort Study on the Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Sleeve Gastrectomy in Patients Older Than Age 60
Background. Bariatric surgery (BS) in older obese subjects (>60 years of age) has risen in the past decade and will continue to rise in the coming years due to ageing of the population. Aim. To evaluate the short- (12 months) and long-term (60 months) results of laparoscopic sleeve gastroscopy (LSG) in patients older than age 60. Methods. We performed a retrospective review of patients prospectively included in a database from January 2007 to December 2013. All patients >60 [older group (OG)] who had undergone LSG were included. The control group (CG) included patients aged 50 to 59 years who had undergone LSG during the same period. Results. 116 (8.4 % of total surgery) and 145 patients were included in the OG and CG, respectively. BS in patients >60 years increased from 2.4% in 2003 to 14% in the last 2 years of the study. After inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) analysis, all absolute standardized differences were <0.15. A 60-month follow-up was attained in 90% of patients in the OG and 74% in the CG. There were no significant differences in postoperative complications between the two groups. At 12 and 60 months after LSG, both groups achieved a similar body mass index. There was no statistical difference in the percentage of resolution of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and SAHS between the two groups. In both groups, all the nutritional parameters evaluated remained within the normal range throughout the study. Conclusions. LSG provides acceptable outcomes and is safe in older adults indicating that age should not be a limitation to perform BS in this population.
The Burden of Overweight and Obesity among Long-Distance Truckers in Ethiopia
Background. Abnormal body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) has become a major global public health problem which is rising at a faster rate in urban areas of low- and middle-income countries. In Ethiopia, the prevalence gradually increases. Long-distance truckers are at a high risk of developing overweight or obesity due to the sedentary nature of their job. Despite these populations at a high risk of developing overweight/obesity such as drivers elsewhere, pieces of data that showed the prevalence and contributing factors of overweight and obesity among long-distance truckers in Ethiopia are not yet available. Objective. To assess the prevalence and contributing factors of overweight and obesity among long-distance truckers in Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 systematically selected truckers at Modjo dry port in Ethiopia from February to March, 2018. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. The final results were presented in tables and numerical summary measures such as mean and standard deviation (SD). Results. Of the 400 truckers interviewed, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 56.5%, 95% CI (51.6%–61.4%). The study also found that a monthly income ≥220 USD (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI (1.05–3.18)), having 3 or more family sizes (AOR = 2.24, 95% CI (1.15–4.36)), less than 6 hours of sleep at night (AOR = 3.34, 95% CI (1.99–5.78)), driving for 9 or more hours daily (AOR = 2.29, 95% CI (1.09–4.81)), and a truck driving experience of 10 or more years (AOR = 2.13, 95% CI (1.29–4.18)) were significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusion. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was substantially high. The study also found that sociodemographic and occupational factors are mainly associated with overweight and obesity. Therefore, a health education program should be designed for awareness creation on the importance of reducing a sedentary lifestyle, consuming healthy foods or drinks, and having regular physical exercise to mitigate the problem.