Determinants of Overweight or Obesity among Men Aged 20–59 Years: A Case-Control Study Based on the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health SurveyRead the full article
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Sexual Health Determinants of Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obese Sexual Minority Men
Background. With the growing recognition of overweight and obesity as significant, international public health concerns, the body of research investigating the relationship between body mass index (BMI), sexual health, and sexual functioning in sexual minority men is still scarce. Objective. The purpose of this study is to assess sexual health determinants (sexual behavior and sexual functioning) in relation to normal weight, overweight, and obesity among gay and bisexual men. Methods and Materials. The survey included four categories of questions/measurements, encompassing sociodemographic information, protected/unprotected sexual behaviors, sexual functioning, and BMI. The survey was conducted online, and recruitment consisted of online notifications (emails and electronic messages) and advertisements sent to LGBT community organizations, mailing lists, and social networks. Results. The study sample was composed of 741 gay and bisexual men, ranging in age from 21 to 75 years (Mage = 43.30, SDage = 11.37); 62.5% of men self-identified as gay and 37.5% as bisexual. Prevalence of normal weight was 50.3%, of overweight, 33.3%, and of obesity, 16.4%. Participants with overweight and obesity showed a lower frequency of anal receptive sex without condoms when scompared to participants with normal weight. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis to assess the effects of BMI on sexual health showed that being younger in age, self-identifying as gay, being in a relationship, having longer penises, adopting insertive position in sex, and being normal weight were significant predictors of anal receptive sex without condoms, explaining 24.2% of the total variance. Yet, BMI was not predictive of sexual functioning. Conclusion. These findings highlight the importance of including BMI in sexual behavior models of sexual minority men to better understand BMI’s role in influencing sexual risk.
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Overweight and Obesity among High School Adolescents in Bahir Dar City, Northwest, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Overweight and obesity can be defined as excessive and abnormal fat deposition in our bodies. A body mass index for age of Z scores +2 to +3 was classified as overweight, whereas BMI for age >+3 Z-score was considered as obesity. Overweight and obesity in adolescents are a major health problem in low-income countries like Ethiopia. However, there is not well-established data on adolescents’ overweight and obesity. Therefore, this study assessed the prevalence and associated factors of overweight and obesity among high school adolescents in Bahir Dar city, northwest of Ethiopia. Methods. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from October 30 to November 30/2019 among 551 high school adolescents. Data were collected using a self-administrative questionnaire. Weight and height were measured by trained health professionals. World Health Organization AnthroPlus software was used to analyze anthropometric data into body mass index for age with z-score to ascertained overweight and obesity. Data were entered using Epi Info version 3.5.3 and transferred to SPSS version 22 for further analysis. Frequency and percentage were presented using tables and figures. A bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between the dependent and independent variables. Adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI and were used to dictate statistical significance for overweight and obesity. Result. In this study, 522 high school adolescents aged 10–19 years were selected using a simple random sampling technique with a response rate of 94.74%. The mean age of the respondents was 17 years with SD ± 1.41. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.5% (95% CI: 9.6, 15.2). Males (13.3%) were more than females (11.5%), being overweight and obese. Having self-employed mothers (AOR: 4.57; 95% CI: 1.06, 19.78), having government-employed mothers (AOR: 6.49; 95% CI: 1.96, 21.54), and having school feeding habit (AOR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.76) were factors associated with overweight/obesity among high school adolescents. Conclusion. The prevalence of overweight/obesity in the current study was high. Adolescents having self-employed mothers, adolescents having government-employed mothers, and students having school feeding habits were significant factors of overweight and obesity. Therefore, more emphasis will be given to adolescents having self- and government-employed mothers and adolescents having school feeding habit.
Chinese Herbal Medicine for Weight Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Randomised Controlled Trials
Objective. This review investigated the effects and safety of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) formulas on weight management. Methods. Eighteen databases in English, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese were searched from their inceptions to September 2019. The treatment groups included CHM formulations, and the control included placebo, Western medication (WM), and lifestyle intervention (LI), with or without cointerventions (WM and/or LI). Quality of studies was assessed using Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias assessment tool. Body weight and body mass index (BMI) were analysed in RevMan v5.4.1 and expressed as mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (CI), while adverse events were expressed as risk ratio with 95% CI. Results. Thirty-nine RCTs were eligible for qualitative analysis, 34 of which were included in the meta-analyses. The majority of studies had a high or unclear risk of selection, performance, and detection bias. Twenty-five CHM studies involving cointerventions revealed that CHM had significant adjunct effects on body weight and BMI at the end of treatment compared to control. No serious adverse events were reported in the CHM groups. Conclusion. CHM indicates a promising adjunct to facilitate WM or lifestyle change for weight management. However, methodological barriers such as lack of allocation concealment and double-blinding may have led to challenges in data synthesis. More rigorously designed RCTs involving cointerventions are warranted.
Measures of Adiposity and Risk of Testing Positive for SARS-CoV-2 in the UK Biobank Study
Objective. To assess if body mass index (BMI) and high waist circumference (HWC) are associated with testing positive for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods. 9,386 UK Biobank study participants tested for SARS-CoV-2 from March 16th 2020 to June 29th 2020 were analyzed. A forward model building approach was used to estimate adjusted risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Analyses were stratified by age due to a significant first-order interaction between age and HWC. Results. Approximately 17% (n = 1,577) of participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. BMI category had a linear association with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 among participants <65 years (RR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.02–1.17). For participants ≥65 years, only obesity class II (RR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.10–1.74) had a significantly greater risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 than those who were underweight/normal weight. While HWC was not associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in those <65 years, having an HWC was associated with an increased risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 in participants ≥65 years (RR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.00–1.27). Conclusion. The associations of BMI and HWC with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 differed by age. Notably, HWC was associated with testing positive in those ≥65 years, but not those who were younger, independent of BMI. This suggests that measures of adiposity in addition to BMI may be used to identify older individuals at greater risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2.
Wearable Activity Tracking Device Use in an Adolescent Weight Management Clinic: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial
Background. The use of physical activity tracker devices has increased within the general population. However, there is limited medical literature studying the efficacy of such devices in adolescents with obesity. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using wearable activity tracking devices as an adjunct intervention on adolescents with obesity. Methods. Randomized controlled pilot trial evaluated the feasibility (attrition ≤50%) of an activity tracking intervention (ATI) and its effects on weight loss in adolescents with obesity enrolled in an adolescent weight management clinic (AWMC). Outcomes included feasibility (attrition rate) and absolute change in BMI. Differences between groups at 6, 12, and 18 weeks were examined. Results. Forty-eight participants were enrolled in the study. Eighteen subjects were randomly assigned to the ATI group and 30 to control. The average age was 14.5 years. Overall, the majority of participants were Hispanic (56%). Sexes were equally distributed. The average baseline BMI was 37.5 kg/m2. At the study conclusion, the overall attrition rate was 52.1%, 44.4% in the ATI group versus 56.6% in the control group, with a differential attrition of 12.2%. The ATI and control groups each showed an absolute decrease in BMI of −0.25 and −2.77, respectively, with no significant differences between the groups. Conclusion. The attrition rate in our study was >50%. Participation in the AWMC by the ATI and control groups resulted in maintenance of BMI and body weight for the study duration. However, the use of an activity tracking device was not associated with greater weight loss. This trial is registered with NCT03004378.
The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Ethiopian Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Background. The metabolic syndrome is a clustering of hyperglycemia/insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and stroke, and all-cause mortality. The burden of metabolic syndrome is emerging alarmingly in low- and middle-income countries such as Ethiopia; however, there is lack of comprehensive estimation. This study aimed to determine the pooled prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Ethiopia. Methods. This systematic review and meta-analysis included original articles of observational studies published in the English language. Searches were carried out in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Africa Journals from conception to August 2020. A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Ethiopia. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 statistic. Subgroup analysis was also conducted based on sex/gender and study subjects. Egger’s test was used to assess publication bias. Results. Electronic and gray literature search retrieved 942 potentially relevant papers. After removing duplicates and screening with eligibility criteria, twenty-eight cross-sectional studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Ethiopia was found to be 34.89% (95% CI: 26.77, 43.01) and 27.92% (95% CI: 21.32, 34.51) by using NCEP/ATP III and IDF criteria, respectively. The weighted pooled prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in females 36.74% (95% CI: 20.72, 52.75) and 34.09% (95% CI: 26.68, 41.50) compared to males 22.22% (95% CI: 14.89, 29.56) and 24.82% (95% CI: 18.34, 31.31) by using IDF and NCEP/ATP III criteria, respectively. Subgroup analysis based on the study subjects using NCEP/ATP III showed that the weighted pooled prevalence was 63.78%(95% CI: 56.17, 71.40), 44.55% (95% CI: 30.71, 52.38), 23.09% (95% CI: 19.74, 26.45), 20.83% (95% CI: 18.64, 23.01), and 18.45% (95% CI: 13.89, 23.01) among type 2 diabetes patients, hypertensive patients, psychiatric patients, HIV patients on HAART, and working adults, respectively. The most frequent metabolic syndrome components were low HDL-C 51.0% (95% CI: 42.4, 59.7) and hypertriglyceridemia 39.7% (95% CI: 32.8, 46.6). Conclusions. The findings revealed an emerging high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Ethiopia. Therefore, early intervention is required for the primary prevention of the occurrence of metabolic syndrome and the further reduction of the morbidity and mortality related to it.