Journal of Obesity has been accepted into Food Science and Technology Abstracts (FSTA).Go to Table of Contents
Journal of Obesity focuses on topics such as obesity, lipid metabolism, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, paediatric obesity, genetics, nutrition & eating disorders, exercise & human physiology, weight control and risks associated with obesity.
Journal of Obesity maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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The Value of Serum Adiponectin in Osteoporotic Women: Does Weight Have an Effect?
Osteoporosis (OP) has been observed to have a deleterious effect on postmenopausal women’s life quality by increasing the risk of fragility fractures. The current research was adopted to verify the role of serum adiponectin, a cytokine released by adipose tissue, as a marker for OP across different body mass index groups, for a better understanding of fatty tissue role in OP. A case-control study recruited 210 eligible postmenopausal women and subgrouped into three groups based on their DEXA scan results: osteoporotic group, osteopenia group, and healthy controls; each includes 70 patients. Three datasets were collected: anthropometric, age, menopause duration, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and fat percentage. Radiological examination estimated the bone mineral density (BMD) for the femoral neck and lumbar spines with their respective T-score. From blood, we measured alkaline phosphatase and calcium by a spectrophotometer and serum adiponectin, phosphate, CTX, and PICP by ELIZA. Total BMD, T-score, serum phosphate, and PICP were significantly higher among healthy controls. Serum adiponectin, CTX, and ALP scored higher levels among OP cases. A strong inverse relationship was proved between serum adiponectin and T-score in osteoporotic and osteopenia groups (−0.427, −0.301). A strong negative relationship was found between serum adiponectin and total BMD in healthy controls (−0.204). All correlations were statistically significant, value <0.001. Serum adiponectin can be a valuable marker for reduced bone mineral density among the general populace, irrespective of the body mass index. Further research is warranted to explore therapeutic and preventive applications for this adipocytokine.
The Effect of Bariatric Surgery Volume on General Surgery Outcomes for Morbidly Obese Patients
Introduction. Bariatric surgery performed at high volume centers decreases length of stay, cost, and morbidity and mortality. The effect of a high volume of bariatric surgery procedures on outcomes may extend not just to bariatric surgery but to any general surgical procedure in morbidly obese patients. We hypothesized that patients with morbid obesity (body mass index >40 kg/m2) undergoing common, nonbariatric general surgery would have decreased morbidity and mortality at centers performing high volumes of bariatric surgery. Methods. The 2016 National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to identify the number of laparoscopic gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy performed at each hospital. Hospitals were classified as high volume bariatric hospitals (HVBH) ≥10 reported cases (50 actual)/year or low volume bariatric hospitals (LVBH) <10 reported cases (50 actual)/year, as NIS reports a 20% sample of actual cases. Patients with morbid obesity undergoing laparoscopic or open appendectomy, cholecystectomy, or ventral hernia repair were included for analysis. Propensity scores were developed based on available demographics, comorbidities, and hospital procedure volume. Postoperative complications during the index hospital admission, determined by ICD-10 code, were compared using inverse propensity weights. Differences were considered significant with a value of <0.05. Results. The total number of general surgery patient cases analyzed was 14,028 from 2,482 hospitals, representing 70,140 admissions. The cohort of patients undergoing operations treated at HVBH were younger () with higher rates of COPD (). Patients at LVBH had higher rates of nicotine dependence () and obstructive sleep apnea (). On propensity-weighted analysis adjusting for preoperative comorbidities and hospital procedure volume, there were significantly higher rates of multiple postprocedure complications at LVBH, specifically, postprocedure respiratory failure for patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, elective ventral hernia repair with mesh and appendectomy. Conclusion. Patients with morbid obesity may have an advantage in having general surgery procedures at HVBH. HVBH may have a volume-outcomes relationship where the hospital and staff familiarity with the management principles required to minimize the postoperative risk associated with morbid obesity and improve patient outcomes.
10-Year Changes in Adiposity in Cameroon School-Age Children: Evidence for Increasing Central Adiposity and Higher Adiposity Levels in Tallest-for-Age Children
Objective. To examine changes in measures of adiposity and determine the prevalence of excess adiposity in relation to height in school children between 2010 and 2020. Methods. 5–12-year-old urban school-age children participated in two cross-sectional surveys in 2010 (n = 1274) and 2020 (n = 1550). Standard procedures were used for anthropometric measurements. Changes in BMI, waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and the corresponding proportions of children with excess adiposity were analyzed and adjusted for design variables (class and school type) and age. Children were classified according to quartiles of height z-score and prevalence of excess adiposity estimated across each quartile. Results. There was a 2.4% and 3.3% increase in adjusted mean BMI and WC, respectively, between 2010 and 2020. The prevalence of central overweight/obesity (WC) and WHtR ≥ 0.5 increased by 7.3% (X2 = 27.151, ) and 5.3% (X2 = 26.117, ), respectively, between the two surveys except BMI overweight/obesity. The odds of excess adiposity significantly increased in 2020 for central overweight/obesity (WC) (OR 2.8, 95% CI 2.0–3.6) and WHtR ≥ 0.5 (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3–2.4) and not for BMI overweight/obesity (OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.8–1.7). The prevalence of BMI overweight/obesity significantly increased from 33% in 2010 to 51.5% in 2020 in the fourth quartile of height z-score (X2 = 19.198, ). Similarly, the prevalence of central overweight/obesity (WC) significantly increased from 23.5% in 2010 to 42.4% in 2020 in the fourth quartile of height z-score (X2 = 18.733, ). Conclusion. Central overweight/obesity has increased more than BMI overweight/obesity over the last decade. Children with a higher height-for-age tend to accumulate more adiposity. Objective monitoring of adiposity levels and height of children is needed in future to identify groups for targeted intervention and prevention of chronic diseases.
Ethnic Differences in Family Childcare Providers’ Nutrition- and Activity-Related Attitudes and Barriers
Objective. The aim of the study is to examine family childcare providers’ (FCCPs) attitudes and perceived barriers related to nutrition, physical activity (PA), and screen time (ST) behaviors of preschool children, exploring differences by provider ethnicity. Design. Baseline survey data from a cluster-randomized trial. Participants. Around 168 FCCPs completed a telephone survey, and 126 completed both telephone and in-person surveys. Main Outcome Measures. Phone and in-person surveys include 44 questions to assess FCCPs attitudes and perceived barriers regarding nutrition, PA, and ST in the family childcare home. Analysis. Associations by ethnicity (Latinx vs. non-Latinx) were assessed by ANOVA, adjusting for provider education and Bonferroni correction. Results. Some FCCP attitudes were consistent with national obesity prevention guidelines; for example, most FCCPs agreed that they have an important role in shaping children’s eating and PA habits. However, many FCCPs agreed with allowing children to watch educational TV and did not agree that children should serve themselves at meals. Adjusting for education, there were statistically significant differences in attitude and perceived barrier scores by provider ethnicity. For example, Latinx FCCPs were more likely to agree that they should eat the same foods as children but less likely to agree that serving the food at meal and snack time is the adult’s responsibility . Latinx FCCPs were more like to perceive barriers related to children’s safety playing outside . Conclusions and Implications. While FCCPs hold some nutrition-, PA-, and ST-related attitudes consistent with national guidelines, training opportunities are needed for FCCPs to improve knowledge and skills and overcome perceived barriers related to nutrition and PA. Latinx FCCPs, in particular, may need culturally tailored training and support to overcome misperceptions and barriers.
Proteomic and Metabolomic Characterization of Metabolically Healthy Obesity: A Descriptive Study from a Swedish Cohort
Background/Aims. Obesity is a well-established risk factor for the development of numerous chronic diseases. However, there is a small proportion of obese individuals that seem to escape these aforementioned conditions—Metabolically Healthy Obesity (MHO). Our aim was to do a metabolic and biomarker profiling of MHO individuals. Method. Associations between different biomarkers (proteomics, lipidomics, and metabolomics) coupled to either MHO or metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) individuals were analyzed through principal component analysis (PCA). Subjects were identified from a subsample of 416 obese individuals, selected from the Malmö Diet and Cancer study—Cardiovascular arm (MDCS-CV, n = 3,443). They were further divided into MHO (n = 143) and MUO (n = 273) defined by a history of hospitalization, or not, at baseline inclusion, and nonobese subjects (NOC, n = 3,027). Two distinctive principle components (PL2, PP5) were discovered with a significant difference and thus further investigated through their main loadings. Results. MHO individuals had a more metabolically favorable lipid and glucose profile than MUO subjects, that is, lower levels of traditional blood glucose and triglycerides, as well as a trend of lower metabolically unfavorable lipid biomarkers. PL2 (lipidomics, ) showed stronger associations of triacylglycerides with MUO, whereas phospholipids correlated with MHO. PP5 (proteomics, ) included interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and leptin with positive relations to MUO and galanin that correlated positively to MHO. The group differences in metabolite profiles were to a large extent explained by factors included in the metabolic syndrome. Conclusion. Compared to MUO individuals, corresponding MHO individuals present with a more favorable lipid metabolic profile, accompanied by a downregulation of potentially harmful proteomic biomarkers. This unique and extensive biomarker profiling presents novel data on potentially differentiating traits between these two obese phenotypes.
Central Obesity and Associated Factors among Adult Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in Armed Force Comprehensive and Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Background. Similar to the general population, the prevalence of central obesity is increasing among HIV-infected persons. There are little data on the burden of abdominal obesity using the waist-to-hip ratio measurement in HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings, including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of central obesity among HIV patients taking ART in an armed force comprehensive and specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2018. A systematic sampling method was used to select 353 study participants. Pretested World Health Organization stepwise questionnaire, document review, and anthropometric and biochemical measurements were used to collect data on different variables under the study. The collected data were entered into EpiData version 3 and analyzed by SPSS version 21. An adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI was considered to declare a statistically significant association. Results. The prevalence of central obesity in this study was 71.7% (95% CI: 67%–76.4%). Besides, the odds of central obesity were associated with being female (AOR: 85.6; 95% CI: 20.09, 364.6), among merchants (AOR: 18.8; 95% CI: 1.39, 255.7), CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 (AOR: 0.03; 95% CI: 0.007, 0.160), among respondents taking AZT + 3TC + EFV-based ART regimen (AOR: 8.73; 95% CI: 1.33, 57.17), ABC + 3TC + ATV/r-based regimen (AOR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.94), increased BMI (AOR: 3.50; 95% CI: 1.36, 3.89), and abnormal blood pressure (AOR: 2.53; 95%: 1.13, 5.67). Conclusion. It is possible to conclude that central obesity is a huge public health problem among the HIV-infected population in the study area. Being female, increased BMI, low CD4 count, AZT + 3TC + EFV, ABC + 3TC + ATV/r-based regimen, and abnormal blood pressure were associated with central obesity. Therefore, adequate attention must be paid to primary and secondary control of these factors to reduce the prevalence of abdominal obesity among HIV-infected patients.