Journal of Obesity has been accepted into Food Science and Technology Abstracts (FSTA).Go to Table of Contents
Journal of Obesity focuses on topics such as obesity, lipid metabolism, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, paediatric obesity, genetics, nutrition & eating disorders, exercise & human physiology, weight control and risks associated with obesity.
Journal of Obesity maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Exploring the Prevalence and Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Sub-Saharan African Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Background. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome represent two closely intertwined public health challenges that have reached alarming epidemic proportions in low- and middle-income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, the current study aimed to determine the weighted pooled prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus in sub-Saharan Africa as defined by the 2004 National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III 2004) and/or the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Methods. A systematic search was conducted to retrieve studies published in the English language on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among type 2 diabetic individuals in sub-Saharan Africa. Searches were carried out in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Google Scholar, African Index Medicus, and African Journal Online from their inception until July 31, 2023. A random-effects model was employed to estimate the weighted pooled prevalence of metabolic syndrome in sub-Saharan Africa. Evidence of between-study variance attributed to heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran’s Q statistic and the I2 statistic. The Joanna Briggs Institute quality appraisal criteria were used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included studies. The summary estimates were presented with forest plots and tables. Publication bias was checked with the funnel plot and Egger’s regression test. Results. Overall, 1421 articles were identified and evaluated using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, and 30 studies that met the inclusion criteria were included in the final analysis. The weighted pooled prevalence of metabolic syndrome among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus in sub-Saharan Africa was 63.1% (95% CI: 57.9–68.1) when using the NCEP-ATP III 2004 criteria and 60.8% (95% CI: 50.7–70.0) when using the IDF criteria. Subgroup analysis, using NCEP-ATP III 2004 and IDF criteria, revealed higher weighted pooled prevalence among females: 73.5% (95% CI: 67.4–79.5), 71.6% (95% CI: 60.2–82.9), compared to males: 50.5% (95% CI: 43.8–57.2), 44.5% (95% CI: 34.2–54.8), respectively. Central obesity was the most prevalent component of metabolic syndrome, with a pooled prevalence of 55.9% and 61.6% using NCEP-ATP III 2004 and IDF criteria, respectively. There was no statistical evidence of publication bias in both the NCEP-ATP III 2004 and IDF pooled estimates. Conclusions. The findings underscore the alarming prevalence of metabolic syndrome among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, it is essential to promote lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise and balanced diets, prioritize routine obesity screenings, and implement early interventions and robust public health measures to mitigate the risks associated with central obesity.
The Concentrations of Interleukin-6, Insulin, and Glucagon in the Context of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in IL6 and INS Genes
Obesity and diabetes are a problem of modern medicine. Although the environmental factors contributing to the development of these diseases are widely known, research into genetic factors is still ongoing. At the same time, the role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of obesity and diabetes is increasingly emphasized. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of two selected polymorphisms (rs1800795 and rs3842729) on the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this study, 118 participants were examined, including a control group (nonobese and nondiabetic group), an obese group, and a diabetic group. Genotype analysis was performed using the PCR-RFLP method. It has been shown that in patients with the G/G genotype within the rs1800795 polymorphism (IL6), the chance of developing type 2 diabetes is several times lower compared to patients with the G/C and C/C genotypes. However, the rs3842729 polymorphism (INS) does not directly affect the risk of obesity or type 2 diabetes (T2D), although elevated insulin concentrations have been observed in obese and diabetic patients. These results confirm the impact of the rs1800795 polymorphism on the development of diabetes; however, this relationship is more complex and requires further research on other factors.
Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) during Ramadan: Narrative Review of the Published Literature
Ramadan fasting, a religious practice observed by Muslims worldwide, involves abstaining from eating, drinking, smoking, and using oral medications from dawn to dusk during the ninth lunar month. Studies have demonstrated that fasting during Ramadan has been shown to increase HDL cholesterol, leptin, adiponectin, and insulin sensitivity, as well as lower several hemostatic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, it may result in a drop in blood sugar levels, especially in diabetics who are also on blood sugar-lowering medicine. Hypoglycemia, characterized by low blood sugar levels, could also result from fasting during Ramadan. The GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) hormone plays a significant role in regulating glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, and Ramadan fasting can affect its production and release in the gut. Research contributes to our understanding of the utilization of GL-1 medications during Ramadan among patients, broadening therapy alternatives and offering insightful information for well-informed decision-making. Therefore, this narrative review aims to explore the current evidence that studies the safety and efficacy of GLP-1 agonists during Ramadan for nondiabetic and diabetic patients to ensure healthy fasting during Ramadan.
The Benefits of Low-Carbohydrate, High-Fat (LCHF) Diet on Body Composition, Leg Volume, and Pain in Women with Lipedema
This study aimed to assess the potential benefits of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet on body composition, leg volume, and pain reduction in women with lipedema compared to overweight or women with obesity. The study included 113 female participants, 56 with lipedema and 57 with overweight/obesity (BMI >25 kg/m2) without lipedema. All subjects were prescribed a low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet with anti-inflammatory properties to adhere to for a duration of 7 months. Measurements of anthropometry, body weight, composition, and pain (VAS) were conducted at the study’s commencement and conclusion. 52 participants completed the study. Both groups experienced a similar weight reduction, amounting to 12.9% compared to the baseline (−10.8 kg vs. −11.9 kg; p = 0.14, for lipedema and women with overweight/obesity, respectively). The most reduction was in body fat mass. Improvements in various parameters were observed, except for ankle circumferences, which decreased more in the lipedema group. Lipedema participants showed significantly reduced pain levels following the LCHF diet (4.6 ± 2.6 vs 3.0 ± 2.3; ). The LCHF diet holds promise for weight loss, body fat reduction, leg volume management, and pain alleviation in women with lipedema. These findings provide valuable insights into potential therapeutic strategies for lipedema management.
Defining and Diagnosing Obesity in India: A Call for Advocacy and Action
The prevalence of overweight and obesity has more than doubled since 1980, and it is predicted that around two-thirds of the global burden of the disease will be attributed to chronic non-communicable diseases. Developing countries are experiencing a more dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity in recent years. As per National Family Health Survey-5 (NFHS-5), one in every four Indians is now having obesity. It has been reported that being overweight and obese is a significant problem among different socioeconomic spectrums of men and women in India, especially among the elderly, people residing in urban regions, and diverse socioeconomic strata. There is an urgent need to identify obesity as a chronic disease requiring immediate attention, mandating timely screening, timely treatment, and economical ways of achieving and managing weight loss across the country. In this review, the authors have discussed various aspects of overweight and obesity and critically appraised the current status of obesity in India, its public health implications, the significance of screening, the role of BMI and other parameters in diagnosing obesity, and the need for treatment and cost-effective prescriptions.
The Interplay between Adipose Tissue Properties and Levels of NT-proBNP in People with HIV
Objective. We aimed to assess the association between low N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and body mass index (BMI), adipose tissue distribution, adiponectin, and HIV-specific risk factors among people with HIV (PWH). Methods. We included 811 PWH with measurement of height, weight and waist circumference, blood samples analyzed for NT-proBNP, and visceral-(VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue areas measured from CT-scans. Low concentrations of NT-proBNP were defined as concentrations below the limit of quantification (5.9 pmol/L). Associations were explored with multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusted for relevant confounders. Results. We identified 471 (58%) individuals with low concentrations of NT-proBNP. Increasing BMI was associated with higher odds of low NT-proBNP (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.06 (95% CI: 1.01–1.11) per 1 kg/m2). Central obesity and large areas of VAT were associated with higher odds of low NT-proBNP (aOR 1.66 (1.16–2.36) and aOR 1.69 (1.09–2.62), respectively). Higher adiponectin was associated with lower odds of low NT-proBNP (aOR 0.86 (0.79–0.95) per 10% increase). No associations were found between low NT-proBNP and HIV-specific risk factors. Conclusions. In PWH, low NT-proBNP is associated with an adverse adipose tissue profile with high BMI, central obesity, accumulation of VAT, and low adiponectin.