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Psychological Diagnoses and Weight Loss among Appalachian Bariatric Surgery Patients
Background. The relationship between presurgical psychopathology and weight loss following bariatric surgery is complex; previous research has yielded mixed results. The current study investigates the relationship among presurgical mental health diagnoses, symptom severity, and weight loss outcomes in an Appalachian population, where obesity-related comorbidities are prominent. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed on bariatric surgery patients in an accredited Appalachian centered academic hospital in northern West Virginia between 2013 and 2015 (n = 347). Data extraction included basic demographics, anthropometrics (percent excess weight loss (%EWL)) at six-month, one-year, and two-year postoperative visits, and two validated psychological questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)) from patient’s presurgical psychological evaluation. Results. Average patient population was 92.5% Caucasian, 81.5% female, 45 ± 11.5 years old, and 84.1% who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery with the remaining having laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. At baseline, no differences were detected in weight, excess body weight, or body mass index between surgery types. Average baseline BDI-II score was 10.1 ± 8.68 (range 0–41) and BAI score was 6.1 ± 6.7 (range 0–36), and this was not significantly different by surgery at baseline. Both baseline psychological scores were in the “minimal” severity range. BDI-II was positively related to BMI of patients at baseline (). Both BDI-II and BAI were not significantly related to %EWL across follow-up. Conclusion. Other than baseline weight, BDI-II and BAI scores were not related to %EWL outcomes in patients receiving bariatric surgery in the Appalachian region. Future work should examine mixed methods approaches to capture prospective and longitudinal data to more thoroughly delve into mental health aspects of our Appalachian patients and improve efforts to recapture postoperative patients who may have been lost to follow-up.
The Ventilatory and Diffusion Dysfunctions in Obese Patients with and without Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome
Objective. To analyze the ventilatory and alveolar-capillary diffusion dysfunctions in case of obesity with or without an OSAS. Methods. It is a cross-sectional study of 48 obese adults (23 OSAS and 25 controls). Anthropometric data (height, weight, and body mass index (BMI)) were collected. All adults responded to a medical questionnaire and underwent polysomnography or sleep polygraphy for apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and percentage of desaturation measurements. The following lung function data were collected: pulmonary flows and volumes, lung transfer factor for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Results. Obesity was confirmed for the two groups with a total sample mean value of BMI = 35.06 ± 4.68 kg/m2. A significant decrease in lung function was noted in patients with OSAS compared with controls. Indeed, when compared with the control group, the OSAS one had a severe restrictive ventilatory defect (total lung capacity: 93 ± 14 vs. 79 ± 12%), an abnormal DLCO (112 ± 20 vs. 93 ± 22%), and higher bronchial inflammation (18.40 ± 9.20 vs. 31.30 ± 13.60 ppb) (). Conclusion. Obesity when associated with OSAS increases the severity of pulmonary function and alveolar-capillary diffusion alteration. This can be explained in part by the alveolar inflammation.
Elevated Serum TNF-α Is Related to Obesity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Is Associated with Glycemic Control and Insulin Resistance
Background. Diabetes and obesity are very common associated metabolic disorders that are linked to chronic inflammation. Leptin is one of the important adipokines released from adipocytes, and its level increases with increasing body mass index (BMI). Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine that is released by adipocytes and inflammatory cells in response to chronic inflammation. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is believed to be associated with low-grade chronic inflammation. The current study aims to investigate the involvement of leptin and TNF-α in T2DM associated with obesity. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study involving 63 healthy volunteers and 65 patients with T2DM. Body composition was measured, and fasting venous blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), basal insulin, leptin, and TNF-α. HbA1c was measured by the affinity column method. Insulin, leptin, and TNF-α immunoassays were performed by the ELISA technique. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function were assessed using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR and HOMA-B). Results. Our study showed a significantly higher level of TNF-α in T2DM patients compared to controls (7.51 ± 2.48 and 6.19 ± 3.01, respectively; ). In obese diabetic patients, the serum level of TNF-α was significantly higher in comparison with nonobese diabetic patients () and obese nondiabetic group (). TNF-α correlated positively with HbA1c (r = 0.361, ) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.296, ) in patients with T2DM. Conclusion. TNF-α is associated with concurrent obesity and T2DM and correlates with HbA1c. This suggests that TNF-α needs further investigation to explore if it has a role in monitoring the effectiveness of management in individuals with obesity and T2DM.
Effect of JumpstartMD, a Commercial Low-Calorie Low-Carbohydrate Physician-Supervised Weight Loss Program, on 22,407 Adults
Background. Commercial weight loss programs provide valuable consumer options for those desiring support. Several commercial programs are reported to produce ≥3-fold greater weight loss than self-directed dieting. The effectiveness of JumpstartMD, a commercial pay-as-you-go program that emphasizes a low-to-very-low-carbohydrate real-food diet and optional pharmacologic treatment without prepackaged meals or meal replacement, has not previously been described. Methods. Completer and last observation carried forward (LOCF) of clinic-measured weight loss (kg) in 18,769 female and 3638 male JumpstartMD participants. Results. Completers lost (mean ± SE) 8.7 ± 0.04 kg, 9.5 ± 0.04% with 44.5 ± 0.5% achieving ≥10% weight loss at 3 months (mo, N = 14,999 completers); 11.8 ± 0.1 kg, 12.6 ± 0.1% with 66.4 ± 0.6% achieving ≥10% weight loss at 6 mo (N = 11,805); and 11.5 ± 0.2 kg, 12.0 ± 0.2% with 57.6 ± 0.9% achieving ≥10% weight loss at 12 mo (N = 8514). LOCF estimates were −6.5 ± 0.03 kg, −7.2 ± 0.03% with 27.1 ± 0.3% achieving ≥10% weight loss at 3 mo; −7.7 ± 0.04 kg, −8.5 ± 0.04% with 36.3 ± 0.3% achieving ≥10% weight loss at 6 mo; and −7.7 ± 0.1 kg, −8.4 ± 0.1% with 34.6 ± 0.3% achieving ≥10% weight loss after 12 mo. Frequent health coach meetings was a major determinant of weight loss, with women and men attending ≥75% of their weekly appointments losing 8.8 ± 0.04 and 11.9 ± 0.1 kg, respectively, after 3 mo, 13.1 ± 0.1 and 16.5 ± 0.3 kg after 6 mo, and 16.5 ± 0.3 and 19.4 ± 0.8 kg after 12 mo. Phentermine and phendimetrazine had a minor effect in women only at 1 (6.1% greater weight loss than untreated), 2 (4.1%), and 3 mo (1.2%), but treated patients showed longer enrollment than nontreated during the first 3 (females: +0.4 ± 0.01; males: +0.3 ± 0.04 mo), 6 (females: +1.1 ± 0.04; males: +1.0 ± 0.1 mo), and 12 mo (females: +2.7 ± 0.1; males: +2.4 ± 0.2 mo). JumpstartMD produced generally greater weight loss than published reports for other real-food and prepackaged-meal commercial programs and somewhat greater or comparable losses to meal replacement diets. Conclusion. A one-on-one medically supervised program that emphasized real low-carbohydrate foods produced effective weight loss, particularly in those attending ≥75% of their weekly appointments.
Linkage between Neighborhood Social Cohesion and BMI of South Asians in the Masala Study
Introduction. South Asians in the United States have a high prevalence of obesity and an elevated risk for cardiometabolic diseases. Yet, little is known about how aspects of neighborhood environment influence cardiometabolic risk factors such as body mass index (BMI) in this rapidly growing population. We aimed to investigate the association between perceived neighborhood social cohesion and BMI among South Asians. Methods. We utilized cross-sectional data from the MASALA study, a prospective community-based cohort of 906 South Asian men and women from the San Francisco Bay area and the greater Chicago area. Multivariable linear regression models, stratified by sex, were used to examine the association between perceived level of neighborhood social cohesion and individual BMI after adjusting for sociodemographics. Results. Participants were 54% male, with an average age of 55 years, 88% had at least a bachelor’s degree, and the average BMI was 26.0 kg/m2. South Asian women living in neighborhoods with the lowest social cohesion had a significantly higher BMI than women living in neighborhoods with the highest cohesion (β coefficient = 1.48, 95% CI 0.46–2.51, ); however, the association was not statistically significant after adjusting for sociodemographic factors (β coefficient = 1.06, 95% CI −0.01–2.13, ). There was no association between level of neighborhood social cohesion and BMI in South Asian men. Conclusion. Perceived neighborhood social cohesion was not significantly associated with BMI among South Asians in our study sample. Further research is recommended to explore whether other neighborhood characteristics may be associated with BMI and other health outcomes in South Asians and the mechanisms through which neighborhood may influence health.
Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors in relation to Overweight Defined by BMI and “Normal-Weight Obesity”
Sociodemographic factors and lifestyle habits affect body weight and body composition. A new syndrome, called normal-weight obesity (NWO), is found in individuals with normal weight and excess body fat in contrast to lean and overweight individuals. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations between sociodemographic factors and smoking and alcohol habits and lower versus higher BMI (≥25 kg/m2) and to examine whether categorization into lean, NWO, and overweight leads to further information about sociodemographic and lifestyle associations, compared with the common categorization defined by BMI. A cohort of 17,724 participants (9,936 females, 56.1%) from the EpiHealth study, with a median age of 61 (53–67) years, was examined. The participants answered a questionnaire about lifestyle, and weight and fat percentage were measured. Associations between sociodemographic factors and lifestyle habits and lower versus higher BMI, and lean versus NWO or lean and NWO versus overweight were calculated by binary logistic regression. Male sex, age, sick leave/disability, married/cohabitating, divorced/widowed, former smoking, and a high alcohol consumption were associated with higher BMI, whereas higher education and frequent alcohol consumption were inversely associated (all ). The associations were similar to associations with lean versus overweight and NWO versus overweight, except for age in the latter case. Associations with lean versus NWO differed from those of lower versus higher BMI, with an association with retirement, an inverse association with male sex (OR, 0.664; 95% confidence interval, 0.591–0.746), and no associations with marital status, smoking, and alcohol consumption frequency. Associations with age and occupation were sex dependent, in contrast to other variables examined. Thus, sociodemographic and lifestyle habits showed similar associations with lower versus higher BMI as with lean and NWO versus overweight, whereas lean versus NWO showed different directions of associations regarding sex, marital status, occupation, smoking, and frequency of alcohol consumption.