Table 2: Selected GI, pancreatic, and adipose tissue peptides that regulate food intake.

PeptideMain site of synthesisReceptors mediating feeding effectsEffect on food intake

CCKProximal intestinal I cellsCCK1Rinhibition
GLP-1Distal intestinal L cellsGLP-1Rinhibition
OxyntomodulinDistal intestinal L cellsGLP-1R and othersinhibition
PYYDistal intestinal L cellsY2Rinhibition
EnterostatinExocrine pancreasF1-ATPase beta subunitinhibition
APO AIVIntestinal epithelial cellsUnknowninhibition
PPPancreatic F cellsY4R, Y5Rinhibition
AmylinPancreatic beta cellsCTRS, RAMPSinhibition
GRP and NMBGastric myenteric neuronsGRPRinhibition
Gastric leptinGastric chief and P cellsLeptin receptorinhibition
GhrelinGastric x/a-like cellsGhrelin receptorstimulation
InsulinPancreatic beta cellsInsulin receptorinhibition
LeptinAdipocytesLeptin receptorinhibition
AdiponectinAdipocytesAdiponectin receptorinhibition

CTRs: calcitonin receptors; RAMPs: receptor activity-modifying proteins; GRP: gastrin-releasing peptide; NMB: neuromedin B; GRPR: GRP receptor.