Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Obesity
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 857510, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/857510
Clinical Study

Adult BMI Change and Risk of Colon Cancer in Postmenopausal Women

1Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7136, USA
2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
3Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
4School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
5Markey Cancer Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536, USA

Received 26 January 2012; Revised 18 April 2012; Accepted 26 April 2012

Academic Editor: Jenifer I. Fenton

Copyright © 2012 Lyla Blake-Gumbs et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Y. Ning, L. Wang, and E. L. Giovannucci, “A quantitative analysis of body mass index and colorectal cancer: findings from 56 observational studies,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 19–30, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. D. Terry, A. B. Miller, and T. E. Rohan, “Obesity and colorectal cancer risk in women,” Gut, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 191–194, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E. E. Calle, C. Rodriguez, K. Walker-Thurmond, and M. J. Thun, “Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. Adults,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 348, no. 17, pp. 1625–1638, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. L. Slattery, R. Ballard-Barbash, S. Edwards, B. J. Caan, and J. D. Potter, “Body mass index and colon cancer: an evaluation of the modifying effects of estrogen (United States),” Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 75–84, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. K. Murphy, E. E. Calle, C. Rodriguez, H. S. Kahn, and M. J. Thun, “Body mass index and colon cancer mortality in a large prospective study,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 152, no. 9, pp. 847–854, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. E. Frezza, M. S. Wachtel, and M. Chiriva-Internati, “Influence of obesity on the risk of developing colon cancer,” Gut, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 285–291, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. A. Berger, Cancer and Energy Balance, Epidemiology and Overview, Energy Balance and Cancer, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1st edition, 2010.
  8. E. Giovannucci, “Insulin, insulin-like growth factors and colon cancer: a review of the evidence,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, no. 11, pp. 3109S–3120S, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Y. Lai, L. M. Chen, J. Y. Lin et al., “17β-Estradiol inhibits prostaglandin E2-induced COX-2 expressions and cell migration by suppressing Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in human LoVo colon cancer cells,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 342, no. 1-2, pp. 63–70, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. A. Rondini, A. E. Harvey, J. P. Steibel, S. D. Hursting, and J. I. Fenton, “Energy balance modulates colon tumor growth: interactive roles of insulin and estrogen,” Molecular Carcinogenesis, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 370–382, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. H. R. Wilkins, K. Doucet, V. Duke, A. Morra, and N. Johnson, “Estrogen prevents sustained COLO-205 human colon cancer cell growth by inducing apoptosis, decreasing c-myb protein, and decreasing transcription of the anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2,” Tumor Biology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 16–22, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. Protiva, H. S. Cross, M. E. Hopkins et al., “Chemoprevention of colorectal neoplasia by estrogen: potential role of vitamin D activity,” Cancer Prevention Research, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 43–51, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. D. Nelson, L. L. Humphrey, P. Nygren, S. M. Teutsch, and J. D. Allan, “Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy: scientific review,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 288, no. 7, pp. 872–881, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. E. Rossouw, G. L. Anderson, R. L. Prentice et al., “Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the women's health initiative randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 288, no. 3, pp. 321–333, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  15. M. E. Martínez, E. Giovannucci, D. Spiegelman, D. J. Hunter, W. C. Willett, and G. A. Colditz, “Leisure-time physical activity, body size, and colon cancer in women,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 89, no. 13, pp. 948–955, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  16. T. Pischon, P. H. Lahmann, H. Boeing et al., “Body size and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC),” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 98, no. 13, pp. 920–931, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. N. L. Nock, C. L. Thompson, T. C. Tucker, N. A. Berger, and L. Li, “Associations between obesity and changes in adult BMI over time and colon cancer risk,” Obesity, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 1099–1104, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. “Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert Committee,” World Health Organization Technical Report Series, vol. 854, pp. 1–452, 1995.
  19. B. E. Ainsworth, W. L. Haskell, S. D. Herrmann et al., “2011 compendium of physical activities: a second update of codes and MET values,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 1575–1581, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. A. Gerrior, W. Y. Juan, and H. A. B. Hiza, “An adult physical activity scoring scheme: its evaluation and application,” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1401–1408, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Bergstrm, P. Pisani, V. Tenet, A. Wolk, and H.-O. Adami, “Overweight as an avoidable cause of cancer in Europe,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 421–430, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. R. J. MacInnis, D. R. English, J. L. Hopper, D. M. Gertig, A. M. Haydon, and G. G. Giles, “Body size and composition and colon cancer risk in women,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 118, no. 6, pp. 1496–1500, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. J. MacInnis, D. R. English, J. L. Hopper, A. M. Haydon, D. M. Gertig, and G. G. Giles, “Body size and composition and colon cancer risk in men,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 553–559, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. G. Renehan, M. Tyson, M. Egger, R. F. Heller, and M. Zwahlen, “Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies,” The Lancet, vol. 371, no. 9612, pp. 569–578, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. Giovannucci, “Metabolic syndrome, hyperinsulinemia, and colon cancer: a review,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. s836–842, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. Pendyala, L. M. Neff, M. Suárez-Fariñas, and P. R. Holt, “Diet-induced weight loss reduces colorectal inflammation: implications for colorectal carcinogenesis,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 234–242, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. Percik and M. Stumvoll, “Obesity and Cancer Part: 1 of the diabetes and cancer mini-review series,” Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes, vol. 117, no. 10, pp. 563–566, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. M. M. Haydon, R. J. MacInnis, D. R. English, H. Morris, and G. G. Giles, “Physical activity, insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3, and survival from colorectal cancer,” Gut, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 689–694, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M.-K. Sung, J.-Y. Yeon, S.-Y. Park, J. H. Y. Park, and M.-S. Choi, “Obesity-induced metabolic stresses in breast and colon cancer,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1229, no. 1, pp. 61–68, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. E. Giovannucci, A. Ascherio, E. B. Rimm, G. A. Colditz, M. J. Stampfer, and W. C. Willett, “Physical activity, obesity, and risk for colon cancer and adenoma in men,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 122, no. 5, pp. 327–334, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. E. E. Calle and R. Kaaks, “Overweight, obesity and cancer: epidemiological evidence and proposed mechanisms,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 579–591, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. J. Gunter, D. R. Hoover, H. Yu et al., “Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, endogenous estradiol, and risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women,” Cancer Research, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 329–337, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. J. Weissberger, K. K. Y. Ho, and L. Lazarus, “Contrasting effects of oral and transdermal routes of estrogen replacement therapy on 24-hour growth hormone (GH) secretion, insulin-like growth factor I, and GH-binding protein in postmenopausal women,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 374–381, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C. Campagnoli, C. Abbà, S. Ambroggio, and C. Peris, “Differential effects of progestins on the circulating IGF-I system,” Maturitas, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. S39–S44, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. T. Raudaskoski, T. Laatikainen, and A. Kauppila, “Sex-hormone binding globulin as an indicator of the hepatic impacts of continuous combined hormone replacement regimens,” Maturitas, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 87–92, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. T. Chlebowski, J. Wactawski-Wende, C. Ritenbaugh et al., “Estrogen plus progestin and colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 350, no. 10, pp. 991–1004, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. Zervoudakis, H. D. Strickler, Y. Park et al., “Reproductive history and risk of colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 103, no. 10, pp. 826–834, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. T. V. Clendenen, K. L. Koenig, R. E. Shore, M. Levitz, A. A. Arslan, and A. Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, “Postmenopausal levels of endogenous sex hormones and risk of colorectal cancer,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 275–281, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. W. Willett, Nutritional Epidemiology, vol. 30 of Monographs in Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Oxford University, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1998.
  40. C. J. Lin, L. A. DeRoo, S. R. Jacobs, and D. P. Sandlera, “Accuracy and reliability of self-reported weight and height in the Sister Study,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 989–999, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  41. J. Stevens, J. E. Keil, L. R. Waid, and P. C. Gazes, “Accuracy of current, 4-year, and 28-year self-reported body weight in an elderly population,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 132, no. 6, pp. 1156–1163, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. M. Verkooijen, C. Bouchardy, V. Vinh-Hung, E. Rapiti, and M. Hartman, “The incidence of breast cancer and changes in the use of hormone replacement therapy: a review of the evidence,” Maturitas, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 80–85, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. P. M. Ravdin, K. A. Cronin, N. Howlader et al., “The decrease in breast-cancer incidence in 2003 in the United States,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 356, no. 16, pp. 1670–1674, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus