Table 3: Changes in primary and secondary outcomes (group level).

VariableStudies (#)Participants (#)ES (#) 𝑋 (95% CI) 𝑄 ( 𝑃 ) 𝐼 2 (%)95% PI

Primary outcomes
 TC (mg/dL)1182013−12.8 (−19.9, −5.7)*65.2 (<0.001)*81.6−38.6, 13.1
 HDL-C (mg/dL)1182013−0.4 (−2.3, 1.6)60.6 (<0.001)*80.2−7.6, 6.8
 TC : HDL-C63838−0.5 (−0.8, −0.1)*46.6 (<0.001)*85.0−1.7, 0.7
 LDL-C (mg/dL)1078312−6.8 (−11.8, −1.8)*36.8 (<0.001)*70.0−23.3, 9.7
 TG (mg/dL)1182013−13.1 (−21.3, −5.0)*59.2 (<0.001)*79.7−39.1, 12.9
Secondary outcomes
 Body weight (kg)1042312−5.2 (−7.3, −3.0)*134.2 (<0.001)*91.8−13.3, 3.0
 BMI (kg/m2)81978−1.4 (−1.7, −1.0)*10.7 (0.2)34.4−2.2, −0.53*
V O 2 m a x (mL kg−1 min−1)518274.8 (2.0, 7.6)*123.9 (<0.001)*95.2−5.3, 14.9
 Kilocalories (total)63897−417 (−515, −320)*7.7 (0.3)21.6−619, −216*
 Carbohydrates (%)524052.8 (0.8, 4.7)*88.1 (<0.001)*95.5−4.3, 9.9
 Total fat (%)73438−4.1 (−6.3, −1.8)*286.2 (<0.001)*97.6−12.0, 3.9
 Saturated fat (%)41605−6.2 (−5.4, −0.9)*246.1 (<0.001)*98.4−13.9, 6.9
 Cholesterol (mg)41535−130 (−165, −96)*5.8 (0.2)31.6−221, −40*

Notes. ES, effect sizes; #, number for which data were available; 𝑋 (95% CI), mean and 95% confidence interval; 𝑄 ( 𝑃 ) , Cochran’s Q statistic for heterogeneity and alpha value; 𝐼 2 (%), percent inconsistency statistic; 95% PI, 95% prediction intervals for a new study; *, statistically significant; TC, total cholesterol; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TC : HDL-C, TC : HDL-C ratio; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TG, triglycerides; BMI, body mass index; V O 2 m a x , maximum oxygen consumption; %, percentage of total kilocalorie intake. To convert TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C from mg/dL to mmol, divide by 38.46; to convert TG from mg/dL to mmol, divide by 87.72.