Table 5: Metaregression results for changes in lipid and lipoprotein concentrations.

VariableStudies (#)Participants (#)ES (#) 𝛽 1 (95% CI) 𝑅 𝑅 2

TC
 Age (years)10810120.4 (−0.4, 1.3).33.11
 Gender65748−0.57 (−20.9, 19.8).03<.01
 Initial TC (mg/dL)11820130.2 (−0.2, 0.5).28.08
 Intervention (wks)11820130.1 (0.05, 0.2)*.74.55
Δ Body weight (kg)9758102.1 (0.8, 3.5)*.73.54
Δ BMI (kg/m2)7325 710.1 (3.2, 17.0)*.83.69
Δ V O 2 m a x (mL kg−1 min−1)53137−0.9 (−3.4, 1.6).31.10
Δ Kilocalories638970.02 (−0.03, 0.06).32.10
Δ Total fat (%)765480.9 (−0.4, 2.2).56.31
Δ Saturated fat (%)430450.4 (−3.5, 4.3).12.02
Δ Cholesterol (mg)42925−0.1 (−0.3, 0.2).27.07
HDL-C
 Age (years)1081012−0.2 (−0.4, 0.1).41.17
 Gender65748−4.0 (−8.9, 0.9).62.38
 Initial HDL-C (mg/dL)1182013−0.1 (−0.4, 0.2).20.04
 Intervention (wks)11820130.01 (−0.03, 0.05).18.03
Δ Body weight (kg)1081012−0.5 (−1.0, 0.1).52.27
Δ BMI (kg/m2)732570.7 (−1.9, 3.4).25.06
Δ V O 2 m a x (mL kg−1 min−1)431360.9 (0.2, 1.5)*.75.56
Δ Kilocalories63897−0.02 (−.04, −0.001)*.73.53
Δ Total fat (%)76548−0.2 (−0.8, 0.4).25.06
Δ Saturated fat (%)430450.6 (−1.6, 2.8).44.19
Δ Cholesterol (mg)42925−0.05 (−0.1, 0.03).54.29
TC : HDL-C
 Age (years)638380.02 (−0.02, 0.06).30.09
 Gender325250.9 (0.5, 1.2)*.93.87
 Initial TC : HDL (mg/dL)41805−0.9 (−1.6, −0.1)*.77.60
 Intervention (wks)63838−0.01, (−0.03, 0.01).28.08
Δ Body weight (kg)638380.1 (0.1, 0.2)*.81.66
Δ BMI (kg/m2)417540.1 (−0.2, 0.5).81.66
Δ V O 2 m a x (mL kg−1 min−1)22084−0.2 (−0.9, 0.4).38.14
Δ Kilocalories429250.005 (0.002,0.007)*.92.85
Δ Total fat (%)429250.01 (−0.02, 0.1).74.54
Δ Saturated fat (%)326140.1 (−0.2, 0.4)..51.26
Δ Cholesterol (mg)42925−0.0002 (−0.002, 0.002).12.02
LDL-C
 Age (years)9773110.4 (−0.1, 1.0).43.18
 Gender426263.2 (−10.5, 17.0).21.04
 Initial LDL-C (mg/dL)10783120.3 (−0.02, 0.52).49.24
 Intervention (wks)10783120.06 (0.01, 0.12)*.58.34
Δ Body weight (kg)9773111.4 (0.5, 2.4)*.67.45
Δ BMI (kg/m2)629068.6 (2.5, 14.6)*.81.66
Δ V O 2 m a x (mL kg−1 min−1)43136−1.1 (−3.0, 0.8).46.21
Δ Kilocalories535560.02 (−0.02, 0.07).50.25
Δ Total fat (%)662070.5 (−0.6, 1.5).39.15
Δ Saturated fat (%)430450.2 (−2.7, 3.2).09.01
Δ Cholesterol (mg)42925−0.004 (−0.2, 0.2).03>.01
TG
 Age (years)10810121.5 (0.3, 2.7)*0.530.28
 Gender657486.2 (−21.7, 34.0)0.130.02
 Initial TG (mg/dL)1077712−0.3 (−0.6, −0.1)*0.620.38
 Intervention (wks)11820130.1 (−0.1, 0.2)0.170.03
Δ Body weight (kg)10810123.2 (1.1, 5.4)*0.590.35
Δ BMI (kg/m2)732570.2 (−21.2, 21.6).01<.001
Δ V O 2 m a x (mL kg−1 min−1)43136−3.1 (−7.3, 1.2).49.24
Δ Kilocalories63897−0.02 (−0.1, 0.1).18.03
Δ Total fat (%)662071.5 (−0.4, 3.4).57.33
Δ Saturated fat (%)43045−2.7 (−8.5, 3.0).51.26
Δ Cholesterol (mg)42925−0.1 (−0.2, 0.4).39.15

Notes. ES, effect sizes; #, number for which data were available; Δ , ES change for outcome; 𝛽 1 (95% CI), slope and 95% confidence interval; *, statistically significant.