Female gender (+), being married (+), younger age among the ≥50 yrs population for example, 50–59 yrs versus 70+ (+), diabetes, hypertension and osteoarthritis (+), high depressive symptoms score in men (−)$.
Age, dental health status, chronic disease, number of obese brothers, number of obese relatives, parental obesity, wife's education, last GPA, high school GPA, monthly family income, physical activity, practice sport ( hours/week), practice sports (months/year), health status, dieting, feeling tired, need special nutrition program#.
Men: 20%. Men age group ≥ 50 yrs: 28%.
Age (+), treated dental status versus healthy (−), having chronic disease (+), number of obese brothers (+), number of obese relatives (+), parental obesity (+), educated wife (−), low high school GPA (+), high family income (+), physical activity (−), sports practice (−), poor health status (+), feeling tired (+), need for special nutrition program (+).
Face to face interview (sociodemographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, lifestyle).
Mann-Whitney -test, -test, multivariate linear regression, multivariate logistic regression.
Age and education when examining time trend. Age, education, exercise, smoking when examining risk factors.
All study years*: all 37%, men 32%, women 41%. Age group ≥ 50 yrs: all 52%, men 39%, women 67%. By study year: men: 1998—23%, 2000—31%, 2002—32%, 2004—39%, 2006—37%, 2008—34%. Women: 1998—28%, 2000—33%, 2002—49%, 2004—49%, 2006—49%, 2008—43%.
Trend: positive between 1998 and 2009 (peak in 2004). Risk factors: age (+), high education in women (−), high education in men (+), smoking and exercise in men (−).
Face to face interview with questionnaire (sociodemographic, Socioeconomic, sociocultural, anthropometric, lifestyle).
Correlation, multivariate linear regression.
Level of education, age, SES, number of families living in the same household, Number of times per week eating at restaurants, degree of preferring salt in food#.
All: 41%. Men: 39%. Women: 42%. Age group ≥ 50 yrs*: all 60%, men 43%, women 80%.
Level of education (−), age (+), SES (−), number of families living in the same household (+), Number of times per week eating at restaurants (+), degree of preferring salt in food (+), general physical activity (−)$, physical activity during work (−)$, number of relatives living in the same household (+)$, degree of religiosity (+)$, having a cook (+)$.
Gender, age, marital status, obesity among parents, dieting, last health check-up, year of study at college#.
All: 9%. Men: 11%. Women: 8%.
Male gender (+), maternal obesity (+), dieting (+), last health check-up a year ago versus do not recall last health check-up (−), second year of study versus first year of study (−), number of brothers/sisters (+)$, low high-school GPA (+)$, number of regular meals eaten (+)$.
1980: not stated (sociodemographic, anthropometric). 1993: face to face interview (sociodemographic, Socioeconomic, anthropometric).
Chi-square test, -test, multivariate linear regression, multivariate logistic regression.
Study period, age, region, education, marital status, occupation.
1980: men 59%, women 32%. 1990: men 73%, women 41%.
Study period 1993-94 (+), age (+), Ahmadi region (+), high education in men (+), married, widowed or divorced in women (+), working in women (+).
Where multivariate results were not available for a specific variable the bivariate results are reported.
#Model adjustment factors not explicitly stated in paper text but above factors were included in the multivariate analysis table in paper.
*If parameters were not directly provided, these were estimated from numbers provided in study.