Table 1: Characteristics of included studies ( ) and their tools ( ).

Reference, details, country Age diet assessed, sample size (gender)Dietary intake measurement Outcomes (food, energy, and/or nutrient intakes)
Type and name (if provided) of toolaNumber of food itemsTool reference periodSelf- or interviewer administeredbNumber of response categories (range)Other tool details

Infants and toddlers (birth-24 months)
Smithers et al. (2012) [16]; UK6 mo, (NR)Nonquantitative FFQ43“nowadays”SelfReport “x” times a weekItems include milk drinks (including formula, BM), cereals (baby, other), rusks, bread/toast, biscuits, ready-to-eat meat/fish/vegetables/baby puddings (fruit, milk), home-cooked meat/fish/vegetables/potatoes/other vegetables/puddings (fruit, milk), raw fruit/vegetables, beverages (juice, fizzy drinks, tea, coffee, and water), sweets, crisps, and chocolateFoods

Ystrom et al. (2009) [17]; Norway18 mo,
(51% boys)
36“Current diet”; NFSSelfDrinks, (never to ≥5 times/day); Foods, (never to ≥3 times/day)Items include dairy products (milk, yoghurt), meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, potato, porridge, bread, rice, water, fruit juice, soda, chocolate, sweets, desserts, and cakesFoods

Dee et al. (2008) [18]; USA6 mo, (NR)Nonquantitative
211 wkSelfReport number of feedings per day or per weekItems include milk (BM, formula, cows, rice, goat, and soy), other dairy (yoghurt, cheese, ice-cream, and pudding), other soy foods (tofu, soy desserts), fruit and vegetable juice, sweet drinks, baby cereal, other cereals (breakfast cereals, biscuits, breads, rice, pasta, etc.), fruit, vegetables, French fries, meat and chicken, fish, nut-based foods, eggs, sweet foods (candy, cookies, cake, etc.), and otherFoods

Marriott et al. (2008) [19]; UK6 mo, (50% boys)Quantitative FFQ341 wkInterviewerOpen responsesItems include meat, fish, vegetables, fruits, cereals, snack foods, commercial baby foods, non-milk drinks and human milk, baby formulas, and other milks. Portion size estimated using household measuresEnergy nutrients

Andersen et al. (2004) [20]; Norway24 mo, (53% boys)Semi-quantitative FFQ152 wkSelfNot specified (never/<1/month to several times/day)125 foods grouped into 15 questions based on the Norwegian meal pattern. Items include dairy (milk, yoghurt, and cheese), bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, meat, fish, cake, chocolate, and soft drinks. Other questions on dietary supplements, food habits, and child nutrition information sources. Portion size estimated using a photographic booklet with four different sized (small–large) or household units (e.g., slices, pieces, and spoons)Foods Energy Nutrients

Andersen et al. (2003) [21]; Norway12 mo, (58% boys)Semiquantitative
182 wkSelfNot specified
(never/<1/month to several times/day)
140 foods grouped into 18 questions based on the Norwegian meal pattern. Items include dairy (milk, yoghurt, and cheese), baby cereal, bread, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, meat, sweetened drinks; and commercial baby foods. Other questions on dietary supplements food habits, child nutrition information sources. Portion size estimated using a photographic booklet with four different sized (small–large) or household units (e.g., slices, pieces, and spoons)Foods

Lartey et al. (2000) [22]; Ghana1–6 mo, (53% girls)Nonquantitative FFQ281 wkNRNRItems include porridges, fruits, vegetables, soups, cereals, legumes, roots and tubers, animal products, cereal-legume mixtures, and cereal-animal product mixtures. Other questions on breastfeeding frequency and daily number other milk feedingsFoods

Preschoolers (2–5 years; 25–60 months)
Pabayo et al. (2012) [23]; Canada4-5 y, (51.5% boys)Nonquantitative FFQ20Usual intake; NFSSelfReport total number of daily or weekly servingsItems include fruits, vegetables, grain products (bread, cereal, pasta, and rice), milk and alternatives (white or flavoured, soy or rice beverages, cheese, and yogurt), and meat and alternatives (meat, poultry, fish, peanut butter, nuts, and tofu), chips, French fries, candy, chocolate, regular soft drinks, and cakes and cookiesFoods

Lanfer et al. (2011) [24]; IDEFICS consortium; European countriesc2–9 y (2–<6y, 39.5%; 6–<10 y, 60.5%), (44% boys)Nonquantitative
FFQ; Children’s
Eating Habits Questionnaire (CEHQ-FFQ)
434 wkSelf8 (never/<1/week to ≥4/day and “I have no idea”)Items include vegetables, potatoes, fruit, meat, fish, egg, cereals, bread, pasta, dairy (cheese, milk, and yoghurt), sweetened beverages, spreads, sauces, take-away products, salty snacks, chocolate, candy, cake, and ice-cream.
Screening instrument investigating food consumption frequency and behaviours associated with child overweight, obesity, and general health

Ebenegger et al. (2010) [25]; SwitzerlandMean 5 y, (64% boys)Nonquantitative
394 wkSelf7 (NR)Items include fruit, vegetables, potato, meat, fish, dairy (yoghurt, cheese, and dairy desserts), bread, cereal, sauces, sweets and snacks (e.g., chocolate), and drinks (e.g., cola). Other questions on eating habitsFoods

Kleiser et al. (2009) [26]; Germany3–17y, (3–6 y, 7–10 y, 11–17 y), (51% boys)Semiquantitative
45Previous “few wks”; NFSSelf10 (never to >5/day)Items include vegetables, fruit, fish, bread/cereal, rice/pasta/potatoes, milk/dairy products, eggs, meat, fats, sweets/fatty snacks/soft drinks, and other beverages. Other questions on eating habits, supplement intake, fortified foods, light products, convenience food, and probiotic products. Portion size estimated using illustrations or standard household measuresFoods

Huybrechts et al. (2009) [27]; Belgium
Huybrechts et al. (2006) [28]; Belgium
2.5–6.5 y, validity reproducibility (NR)
2.5–6.5 y, mean 4.5 y , (50% boys)
4712 moSelf6 (every day to never or less than 1 day/month)Items include beverages (water, juice, and milk drinks), dairy (cheese, yoghurt), meat and meat alternatives (fish, eggs), bread, pasta, rice, vegetables, fruit, potatoes (including fried), meat/fish products, chocolate, sweet snacks, salty snacks, and desserts. Other questions on food habits of some product groups.
Portion size estimated using examples of common standard measures
Energy Nutrients

Randall Simpson et al. (2008) [29]; Canada 3-4 y, validity reproducibility (94% girls) Nonquantitative screening tool; NutriSTEP 6Usual intake; NFSSelfNRItems include grains, milk, fruit, vegetables, meat, and fast food.
Other questions on nutrition risk constructs: physical growth, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and factors affecting food intake

Romaguera et al. (2008) [30]; Argentina 2–9 y (mean boys = 5.1; girls = 5.2), (NR) Semiquantitative FFQ 46NRInterviewerNRItems include cereals/grains, potatoes/tubers, pulses, fish, meat/meat products, eggs, milk/dairy products, fruits and vegetables, fats, added oil, sugary drinks, herbal teas, and added sugar and sweets, sweet and milky desserts. Portion sizes determined according to the observed amount usually consumed in population, measured prior to study. Foods energy nutrients

Sullivan et al. (2006) [31]; USA <60 mo, (59% boys) Nonquantitative FFQ 472 moSelf9 (1, 2, and 3/day; 1, 2, 3/week; 0, 1, and 2/month) Items include fruits, vegetables, legumes and nuts, dairy products, meat, fish, and poultry. Foods

FFQ: food frequency questionnaire; iDEFICS: Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants; NFS: not further specified; mo: months; NR: not reported; USA: United States of America; UK: United Kingdom; y: years.
aTools were defined as quantitative (quantity of food consumed was estimated using weights, measures, or food models), semiquantitative (quantity of food consumed estimated using a standard portion size, serving, or a predetermined amount and respondent asked about the number of portions consumed), or nonquantitative (quantity of food consumed not assessed).
bSelf-administered (primary caregiver completed the dietary assessment without assistance); interviewer-administered (a trained interviewer elicited the dietary assessment information from the primary care-giver in a one-on-one setting).
cItaly, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Germany, Hungary, and Spain.