Journal of Obesity / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Light to Moderate Alcohol Consumption Is Protective for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Normal Weight and Overweight Individuals but Not the Obese

Table 1

Characteristics of participants overall and by body mass index levels in employed men and women, 1988–1990.

OverallNormalOverweightObese

5,5121,8962,4101,206
Age (years)48.8 (0.08)48.5 (0.14)49.2 (0.13)48.5 (0.17)
Male (%)72.464.980.368.5
No alcohol consumption682 (12.4%)199 (10.5%)216 (9.0%)267 (22.2%)
Alcohol (g/day)
 <52128 (38.6%)780 (41.1%)889 (36.9%)459 (38.1%)
 <201920 (34.8%)685 (36.1%)904 (37.5%)331 (27.4%)
 ≥20782 (14.2%)232 (12.2%)401 (16.6%)149 (12.4%)
New type 2 Diabetes170 (3.1%)17 (0.9%)44 (1.8%)109 (9.0%)
IGT248 (4.5%)44 (2.3%)104 (4.3%)100 (8.3%)
Hypertension997 (18.1%)193 (10.1%)435 (18.0%)369 (30.6%)
Current cigarette smoker1399 (25.4%)474 (25.0%)613 (25.4%)312 (25.9%)
Ex-cigarette smoker1845 (33.5%)565 (29.8%)871 (36.1%)409 (33.9%)

Age, gender, and ethnicity adjusted
BMI (kg/m2)27.2 (0.06)23.1 (0.05)27.3 (0.04)***33.4 (0.07)***
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 5.40 (0.01)5.21 (0.05)5.37 (0.02)***5.75 (0.03)***
2 hour glucose (mmol/L)4.93 (0.03)4.59 (0.04)4.85 (0.04)***5.62 (0.06)***
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)6.19 (0.02)6.00 (0.03)6.28 (0.02)***6.33 (0.04)***
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)1.26 (0.004)1.35 (0.01)1.24 (0.01)***1.15 (0.01)***
Serum triglycerides (mmol/L)11.38 (1.01)1.13 (1.02)1.45 (1.02)***1.76 (1.03)***
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)123.6 (0.19)119.3 (0.30)123.9 (0.26)***129.8 (0.40)***
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)76.6 (0.13)73.6 (0.22)76.8 (0.19)***80.9 (0.29)***
Physical activity (min/day)116.2 (1.06)17.6 (1.11)17.2 (1.09)12.7 (1.14)***
NZSEI46.2 (0.17)47.4 (0.28)46.1 (0.24)***44.6 (0.37)***

versus normal weight individuals. Percentages are for that group (column).
1geometric mean (tolerance factor). IGT = impaired glucose tolerance. NZSEI = New Zealand socio-economic index.