Journal of Obesity / 2014 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Light to Moderate Alcohol Consumption Is Protective for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Normal Weight and Overweight Individuals but Not the Obese

Table 2

Characteristics of participants by alcohol consumption levels in employed men and women, 1988–1990.

No alcohol<5 g/day<20 g/day≥20 g/day

6822,1281,920782
Age (years)49.7 (0.24)48.6 (0.13)***48.6 (0.14)***49.0 (0.22)*
Male (%)64.980.368.5
New diabetes41 (6.0%)49 (2.3%)54 (2.8%)26 (3.3%)
IGT47 (6.9%)87 (2.3%)76 (4.0%)38 (4.9%)
Hypertension130 (19.1%)346 (16.3%)329 (17.1%)192 (24.6%)
Current cigarette smoker135 (19.8%)521 (24.5%)467 (24.3%)276 (35.3%)
Ex-cigarette smoker168 (24.6%)629 (29.6%)711 (37.0%)337 (43.1%)

Age, gender, and ethnicity adjusted
BMI (kg/m2)27.8 (0.16)27.1 (0.09)27.0 (0.09)***27.4 (0.15)
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 5.44 (0.04)5.35 (0.02)*5.40 (0.02)5.48 (0.03)
2-hour glucose (mmol/L)5.23 (0.09)4.89 (0.04)***4.85 (0.04)***4.97 (0.07)**
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)6.12 (0.05)6.16 (0.03)6.16 (0.03)6.43 (0.04)***
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)1.16 (0.01)1.20 (0.01)***1.30 (0.01)***1.39 (0.01)***
Serum triglycerides (mmol/L)11.32 (1.04)1.35 (1.02)1.39 (1.02)*1.56 (1.04)***
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)123.6 (0.53)122.4 (0.29)124.0 (0.30)125.9 (0.48)**
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 75.9 (0.38)76.3 (0.21)76.8 (0.22)77.8 (0.34)**
Physical activity (min/day)112.7 (1.19)14.9 (1.10)18.7 (1.10)***18.1 (1.17)**
NZSEI44.2 (0.46)46.5 (0.25)***46.8 (0.27)***45.8 (0.42)***

; ; compared to no alcohol group. Percentages are for that column.
1Geometric mean (tolerance factor). IGT: impaired glucose tolerance; NZSEI: New Zealand socioeconomic index.