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Journal of Obesity
Volume 2015, Article ID 178526, 6 pages
Research Article

Obesity and Metabolic Phenotypes (Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Variants) Are Significantly Associated with Prevalence of Elevated C-Reactive Protein and Hepatic Steatosis in a Large Healthy Brazilian Population

1Aventura Hospital and Medical Center, Aventura, FL 33180, USA
2Center for Prevention and Wellness Research, Baptist Health South Florida, Miami, FL 33139, USA
3Department of Epidemiology, Robert Stempel College of Public Health, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA
4Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for Preventive Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
5Preventive Medicine Center, Avenida Albert Einstein 627/701, 05652-900 Morumbi, SP, Brazil
6Heart Institute (InCor) University of São Paulo Medical School Hospital & Preventive Medicine Center, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, 05652-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
7Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA

Received 3 December 2014; Accepted 19 February 2015

Academic Editor: R. Prager

Copyright © 2015 Sameer Shaharyar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Among the obese, the so-called metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype is thought to confer a lower CVD risk as compared to obesity with typical associated metabolic changes. The present study aims to determine the relationship of different subtypes of obesity with inflammatory-cardiometabolic abnormalities. Methods. We evaluated 5,519 healthy, Brazilian subjects ( years, 78% males), free of known cardiovascular disease. Those with <2 metabolic risk factors (MRF) were considered metabolically healthy, and those with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and/or waist circumference meeting NCEP criteria for metabolic syndrome as overweight/obese (OW). High sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured to assess underlying inflammation and hepatic steatosis (HS) was determined via abdominal ultrasound. Results. Overall, 40% of OW individuals were metabolically healthy, and 12% normal-weight had ≥2 MRF. The prevalence of elevated CRP (≥3 mg/dL) and HS in MHO versus normal weight metabolically healthy group was 22% versus 12%, and 40% versus 8% respectively (). Both MHO individuals and metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW) phenotypes were associated with elevated hsCRP and HS. Conclusion. Our study suggests that MHO and MUNW phenotypes may not be benign and physicians should strive to treat individuals in these subgroups to reverse these conditions.