Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Obesity
Volume 2016, Article ID 4897092, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4897092
Research Article

Cardiovascular Endurance, Body Mass Index, Physical Activity, Screen Time, and Carotenoid Intake of Children: NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey

Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, MMC AHC5 306, Miami, FL 33199, USA

Received 21 April 2016; Revised 27 August 2016; Accepted 8 September 2016

Academic Editor: Jonny St-Amand

Copyright © 2016 Joan A. Vaccaro and Fatma G. Huffman. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States, 2011-2012, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Nutrition, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 2014, http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/childhood.html.
  2. T. L. S. Visscher and J. C. Seidell, “The public health impact of obesity,” Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 22, pp. 355–375, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. K. Kumanyika, E. Obarzanek, N. Stettler et al., “Population-based prevention of obesity: the need for comprehensive promotion of healthful eating, physical activity, and energy balance: a scientific statement from American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Interdisciplinary Committee for prevention (formerly the expert panel on population and prevention science),” Circulation, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 428–464, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. World Health Organization, “Obesity and overweight,” Fact Sheet N311, 2015, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/.
  5. S. A. Kim, L. V. Moore, D. Galuska et al., “Vital signs: fruit and vegetable intake among children—United States, 2003–2010,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 63, no. 31, pp. 671–676, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  6. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Midcourse Report Subcommittee of the President's Council on Fitness Sports and Nutrition, Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Midcourse Report: Strategies to Increase Physical Activity among Youth, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC, USA, 2012.
  7. J. Duke, W. Rockville, M. M. Huhman, and C. Heitzler, “Physical activity levels among children aged 9–13 years—United States, 2002,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 52, no. 33, pp. 785–788, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  8. Food Research and Action Center, “Why low-income and food insecure people are vulnerable to obesity,” 2015, http://frac.org/initiatives/hunger-and-obesity/why-are-low-income-and-food-insecure-people-vulnerable-to-obesity/.
  9. M. Story, M. S. Nanney, and M. B. Schwartz, “Schools and obesity prevention: creating school environments and policies to promote healthy eating and physical activity,” The Milbank Quarterly, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 71–100, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Fact Sheet: school health policies and program study (SHPPS 2006),” http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/shpps/2006/factsheets/pdf/FS_PhysicalEducation_SHPPS2006.pdf.
  11. V. J. Rideout, U. G. Foehr, and D. F. Roberts, “Generation M2: media in the lives of 8- to 18-year-olds,” Tech. Rep., Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Menlo Park, Calif, USA, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  12. C. L. Johnson, S. M. Dohrmann, W. Van de Kerckhove et al., “National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: National Youth Fitness Survey Estimation procedures, 2012,” Vital Health Statistics, vol. 2, no. 168, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  13. L. Borrud, M. M. Chiappa, V. L. Burt et al., “National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: National Youth Fitness Survey plan, operations, and analysis, 2012,” Vital Health Statistics, vol. 2, no. 163, pp. 1–24, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  14. Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Defining Childhood Obesity: BMI for Children and Teen, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Nutrition, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 2015, http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/defining.html.
  15. IBM, SPSS, Version 23, Complex Sample Analysis Module, IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA, 2015.
  16. S. W. Littleton, “Impact of obesity on respiratory function,” Respirology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 43–49, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. A. G. Faria, M. A. G. O. Ribeiro, F. A. L. Marson et al., “Effect of exercise test on pulmonary function of obese adolescents,” Jornal de Pediatria, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 242–249, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Caprio, S. R. Daniels, A. Drewnowski et al., “Influence of race, ethnicity, and culture on childhood obesity: implications for prevention and treatment: a consensus statement of shaping America's health and the obesity society,” Diabetes Care, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 2211–2221, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. E. Barlow, “Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report,” Pediatrics, vol. 120, supplement 4, pp. S164–S192, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. American Academy of Pediatrics, “Media and children,” 2016, https://www.aap.org/en-us/advocacy-and-policy/aap-health-initiatives/Pages/Media-and-Children.aspx.
  21. K. R. Laurson, J. A. Lee, D. A. Gentile, D. A. Walsh, and J. C. Eisenmann, “Concurrent associations between physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration with childhood obesity,” ISRN Obesity, vol. 2014, Article ID 204540, 6 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. T. A. Ledoux, M. D. Hingle, and T. Baranowski, “Relationship of fruit and vegetable intake with adiposity: a systematic review,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. e143–e150, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Strategies to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases: The CDC Guide to Strategies to Increase the Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 2011.
  24. M. Rasmussen, R. Krølner, K.-I. Klepp et al., “Determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among children and adolescents: a review of the literature. Part I: quantitative studies,” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 3, article 22, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. R. Mellecker and A. M. McManus, “Energy expenditure and cardiovascular responses to seated and active gaming in children,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 162, no. 9, pp. 886–891, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus