Table 1: Baseline clinical characteristics according to body mass index (n = 97).

BMI 18.5 to 24.9 (n = 13)BMI 25.0 to 29.9 (n = 38)BMI ≥ 30.0 (n = 46)value

Age (years)54.6 ± 18.059.5 ± 8.357.8 ± 12.10.44
Sex0.90
 Male10 (12.7)31 (39.2)38 (48.1)
 Female3 (16.7)7 (38.9)8 (44.4)
Smoking19 (14.8)20 (32.8)32 (52.5)0.25
Alcohol abuse01 (25)3 (75)0.49
IPAQ0.54
 Active4 (12.9)12 (38.7)15 (48.4)
 Minimally active4 (10.8)18 (48.6)15 (40.5)
 Inactive5 (17.2)8 (27.6)16 (55.2)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus3 (15)8 (40)9 (45)0.96
Dyslipidemia4 (7.3)24 (43.6)27 (49.1)0.12
Hypertension4 (6.8)25 (42.4)30 (50.8)0.06
BMI (kg/m2)23.8 ± 1.227.4 ± 1.433.4 ± 3.6<0.001
WC (cm)
 Male88.4 ± 6.496.6 ± 5.2110.0 ± 9.2<0.001
 Female84.3 ± 3.192.5 ± 7.5101.4 ± 5.40.002
HC (cm)
 Male93.9 ± 3.999.6 ± 3.7109.1 ± 8.7<0.001
 Female96.3 ± 4.2100.1 ± 6.1110.1 ± 5.80.003
WHR
 Male0.94 ± 0.060.97 ± 0.061.00 ± 0.060.002
 Female0.88 ± 0.040.93 ± 0.060.92 ± 0.060.41
NC (cm)
 Male37.4 ± 1.539.3 ± 2.242.7 ± 3.1<0.001
 Female33.6 ± 1.735.3 ± 2.537.2 ± 1.60.002
LAP (cm/mmol/l)
 Male27.67 (21–53)42.09 (28–71)80.18 (58–21)<0.001
 Female30.14 (13–39)38.55 (35–51)85.09 (49–113)0.019
VAI (log)
 Male3.35 (2.4–4.7)3.64 (2.7–7.5)5.18 (3.4–8.3)0.09
 Female3.44 (1.6–4.6)4.76 (3.1–6.1)7.05 (3.3–9.3)0.16
DAAT (cm2)
 Male170.0 ± 43.8224.2 ± 34.2309.9 ± 61.8<0.001
 Female104.3 ± 14.1143.4 ± 20.3179.4 ± 25.00.002
IL-2 (pg/mL)18.8 ± 1.719.6 ± 3.118.6 ± 1.90.19
IL-4 (pg/mL)27.5 ± 5.527.4 ± 7.427.2 ± 6.10.99
IL-6 (pg/mL)17.4 ± 3.017.7 ± 4.618.5 ± 5.50.68
IL-10 (pg/mL)16.8 ± 4.416.5 ± 4.617.2 ± 8.30.90
INF-γ (pg/mL)16.1 ± 3.918.3 ± 5.617.5 ± 4.00.33
hs-CPR (mg/L)0.10 (0.1–0.4)0.14 (0.02–0.3)0.21 (0.1–0.4)0.81
Fibrinogen (mg/dL)298.9 ± 69.5283.8 ± 63.9284.0 ± 64.10.74
Mon1 (%)62.1 ± 15.059.5 ± 14.257.3 ± 17.90.61
Mon2 (%)4.9 ± 1.95.8 ± 2.25.2 ± 2.50.39
Mon3 (%)15.3 ± 8.716.5 ± 8.218.4 ± 9.60.45

Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation, median (interquartile range), or n (%). 1Current or past smoking. IPAQ: International Physical Activity Questionnaire; BMI: body mass index; WC: waist circumference; HC: hip circumference; WHC: waist-hip circumference; NC: neck circumference; LAP: lipid accumulation product; VAI: visceral adiposity index; DAAT: deep-abdominal-adipose tissue; IL: interleukin; INF-γ: interferon-gamma; hs-CRP: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; Mon1: classic monocytes; Mon2: intermediate monocytes; Mon3: nonclassic monocytes.