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Journal of Obesity
Volume 2019, Article ID 3820759, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3820759
Research Article

Impact of Obesity on Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Disease Prognosis in Pre- and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Institutional Study

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), Irbid, Jordan
2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), Irbid, Jordan
3Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), Irbid, Jordan
4Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), Irbid, Jordan
5Department of Adults Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST), Irbid, Jordan

Correspondence should be addressed to Nehad M. Ayoub; oj.ude.tsuj@buoyamn

Received 19 December 2018; Revised 15 February 2019; Accepted 3 March 2019; Published 25 March 2019

Academic Editor: Sharon Herring

Copyright © 2019 Nehad M. Ayoub et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Purpose. To investigate the association between obesity and breast cancer clinicopathologic characteristics at presentation along with prognostic impact among Jordanian breast cancer patients. Such data are lacking in Arabian countries. Methods. In this retrospective study, 348 breast cancer patients were included. Analyses were conducted for associations between body mass index (BMI) and age at diagnosis, tumor clinicopathologic characteristics, and molecular subtypes. Eight prognostic factors were considered, and total prognostic scores were calculated. The analysis was stratified by menopausal status. Multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors for breast cancer recurrence and death. Results. Mean age at diagnosis was 50.98 ± 10.96 years. Mean BMI at diagnosis was 29.52 ± 5.32 kg/m2. Mean age at diagnosis was significantly higher for overweight and obese patients compared to underweight/normal patients (). A significant positive correlation was observed between patient age and BMI at diagnosis (r = 0.251, ). Grade of carcinoma was significantly correlated with BMI in the whole population examined (). Obese breast cancer patients had significantly higher prognostic scores compared to nonobese cases, indicating worse prognostic features at presentation (). Stratification of data analysis based on menopausal status revealed significant associations between obesity and each of tumor stage and grade among postmenopausal but not premenopausal patients ( and , respectively). Similarly, postmenopausal obese patients had significantly higher prognostic scores compared to nonobese counterparts (), indicating worse prognosis, a finding which was also absent among premenopausal breast cancer patients. No significant association between BMI with expression status of hormone receptors, HER2, lymphovascular invasion, and molecular subtypes was found among patients. BMI was a significant predictor for disease recurrence in which obese breast cancer patients had greater odds (2-fold) to develop locoregional and distant recurrence compared to nonobese cases (). Conclusions. Obesity was associated with advanced stage and grade of breast carcinoma at diagnosis. The impact of BMI on clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis was confined to postmenopausal cases. Jordanian obese breast cancer patients are at greater risk of breast cancer recurrence and reduced survival compared to their nonobese counterparts.