Journal of Ophthalmology

Journal of Ophthalmology / 2009 / Article

Case Report | Open Access

Volume 2009 |Article ID 363482 | 3 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/363482

Acute Keratoconus-Like Hydrops after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis

Academic Editor: Susanne Binder
Received02 Sep 2009
Accepted14 Dec 2009
Published08 Mar 2010

Abstract

Purpose. To demonstrate keratoconus-like hydrops after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Patient and Methods. A 21-year-old man received uneventful bilateral LASIK. On slit lamp examination or corneal topography there were no signs of fruste keratoconus. The preoperative corneal thickness was 587- m OD and the calculated ablation for two treatments was 114- m. Uneventful LASIK with an optical zone of 7 mm and an ablation of 89- m OD, and an ablation of 73- m OS was performed. Three years postoperatively, he complained about progressive myopia and impaired vision OD. His VA was hand motion OD and 20/20 OS. Results. OCT and light microscopy revealed an anterior corneal steepening and acute keratoconus-like excessive edematous swelling. Conclusion. The cornea is mechanically weakened after LASIK by the lamellar cut and tissue subtraction. Although the advocated minimal residual stromal bed thickness is 250- m, it may not be adequate to prevent progressive keratoconus-like hydrops in the selected cases.

1. Introduction

Acute keratoconus-like corneal swelling is associated with anterior corneal steepening. After laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) the integrity of the posterior stromal bed is excessively compromised by the disruption of corneal lamellae that occurs when the microceratom passes through the stroma and a consecutive excimer laser photoablation is performed [1]. This substantial reduction of the corneal biomechanical effective stress-bearing thickness may induce lateral pulling of the peripheral cornea and flattening of the central cornea [2]. There is concern that, at some point, the tensile strength of the cornea might be reduced to the degree that progressive ectasia ensues, thus resulting in corneal steepening, progressive myopia and irregular astigmatism. It has been stated that a residual stromal thickness of at least 250- m is necessary to forestall iatrogenic keratectasia after LASIK [2]. We present the tomographic features of a patient who developed progressive corneal hydrops after LASIK after a moderate ablation below 120- m.

2. Case Report

A 21-year-old man, required refractive surgery to correct his myopia and astigmatism at another hospital. His manifest best-corrected visual acuity (VA) was 20/20 with –1.75/90 OD and 20/20 with  sph OS. Preoperative corneal pachymetry measurements were 587- m OD and 594- m OS. Corneal topography was normal with no signs of frust keratoconus. Anterior slit lamp examination prior to surgery revealed no characteristic corneal findings of keratoconus including Vogt’s striae or Fleischer ring. The patient underwent bilateral full-correcting LASIK within an optical zone of 7 mm with 89- m OD and 73- m OS by one of the most experienced refractive surgeons in Germany. Three months postoperative the refraction was /180 OD and –0.75/120 with a best-corrected VA 20/20OU. A retreatment of the astigmatism required an additional ablation of 25- m OD.

The patient came to our hospital seeking for a second opinion as he complained 6 months before the visit about diplopia and progressive impaired vision. Two days before the visit, his VA decreased to counting fingers OD and while his left eye remained stabile at 20/20. The diagnosis of acute keratoconus-like hydrops was made based on the progressive central edematous steepening of the corneal stroma (Figure 1) and a penetrating keratoplasty was recommended. Tomographic scans using optical coherent tomography (OCT) confirmed an anterior corneal steepening and acute keratoconus-like excessive edematous swelling of approximately 1250- m (Figure 2). The patient underwent an uncomplicated corneal transplantation (9.0 mm donor size to 8.5 mm recipient size) and the corneal tissue was sent for histologic evaluation. On light microscopy the stromal architecture appeared rarified and the space between separate corneal lamellae was edematously swollen (Figure 3).

3. Comment

We describe the unique tomographic features by OCT and histology in an keratokonus-like hydrops after LASIK. OCT may be promising in providing detailed analysis of the prior structural stromal architecture [3], during [4, 5] and after LASIK [6]. Similar to the OCT, the optical low coherent pachymetry (OLCR) can investigate the mean flap thickness after LASIK [7]. These novel techniques may help to determine the tomographic corneal architecture and anterior segment on a micrometer scale generating a valuable insight of the in vivo structure [8].

Our patient provides an instructive report of the risk of keratoconus-like hydrops following the LASIK of his moderate myopia and irregular astigmatism in the eyes. The preoperatively measured corneal thickness was 587- m OD and the calculated ablation for both treatments was 114- m, indicating a remaining thickness of approximately 470- m.

After LASIK, the cornea is mechanically weakened by the lamellar cut and the substantial tissue subtraction. Although the advocated minimal residual stromal-bed thickness is 250- m, it may not be adequate to prevent progressive keratoconus-like hydrops in the selected cases.

References

  1. M. C. Knorz, B. Wiesinger, A. Liermann, V. Seiberth, and H. Liesenhoff, “Laser in situ keratomileusis for moderate and high myopia and myopic astigmatism,” Ophthalmology, vol. 105, no. 5, pp. 932–940, 1998. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  2. B. Seitz, F. Torres, A. Langenbucher, A. Behrens, and E. Suárez, “Posterior corneal curvature changes after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis,” Ophthalmology, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 666–672, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  3. C. H. Meyer and W. Sekundo, “Evaluation of granular corneal dystrophy with optical coherent tomography,” Cornea, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 270–271, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  4. C. Wirbelauer and D. T. Pham, “Intraoperative optical coherence pachymetry during laser in situ keratomileusis—first clinical experience,” Journal of Refractive Surgery, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 372–377, 2003. View at: Google Scholar
  5. U. Genth, M. Mrochen, R. Walti, M. M. Salaheldine, and T. Seiler, “Optical low coherence reflectometry for noncontact measurements of flap thickness during laser in situ keratomileusis,” Ophthalmology, vol. 109, no. 5, pp. 973–978, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  6. A. H. Wolf, A. S. Neubauer, S. G. Priglinger, A. Kampik, and U. C. Welge-Luessen, “Detection of laser in situ keratomileusis in a postmortem eye using optical coherence tomography,” Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 491–495, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  7. C. H. Meyer, E. B. Rodrigues, and S. Mennel, “Anterior segment anomaly on optical coherence tomography,” Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 118–119, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  8. C. H. Meyer, S. Mennel, C. Cury, and W. Sekundo, “Anterior chamber width measurement,” Ophthalmology, vol. 112, no. 9, pp. 1638–9, 2005. View at: Google Scholar

Copyright © 2009 Carsten H. Meyer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


More related articles

819 Views | 576 Downloads | 3 Citations
 PDF  Download Citation  Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder

Related articles

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly and safely as possible. Any author submitting a COVID-19 paper should notify us at help@hindawi.com to ensure their research is fast-tracked and made available on a preprint server as soon as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted articles related to COVID-19. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.