Sutureless Intrascleral Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Fixation: Analysis of Clinical Outcomes and Postoperative ComplicationsRead the full article
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Time Course of Lens Epithelial Cell Behavior in Rabbit Eyes following Lens Extraction and Implantation of Intraocular Lens
Background. After cataract surgery, some lens epithelial cells (LECs) transdifferentiate into myofibroblast-like cells, which causes fibric posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Residual LECs differentiate into lens fiber cells, forming Elschnig pearls with PCO. This study was carried out to identify the time course of both types of LEC behavior in rabbit eyes following lens extraction and implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). Methods. Phacoemulsification and implantation of posterior chamber IOLs were performed in rabbit eyes. Following enucleation, immunohistochemical methods were used to detect α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker for myofibroblast-like cells, in the pseudophakic rabbit eyes. A mouse monoclonal antibody against α-SMA was used. Results. Soon after the operation, the LECs migrated and covered the lens capsule. Thereafter, the LECs around the anterior capsular margin were always positive for α-SMA. However, the distributions of these cells were not consistent. In some specimens, α-SMA-positive LECs were present around the IOL optic early after surgery, but most of them had disappeared several weeks after the surgery. The residual cells induced fibrotic PCO. In the other specimens, most LECs around the IOL optic except the anterior capsular margin were negative for α-SMA. In the peripheral region covered by the peripheral anterior and posterior capsules, LECs on the posterior capsule always differentiated into lens fiber cells and formed a Soemmering ring. Thereafter, migration of lens fiber cells from the Soemmering ring and differentiation of LECs in situ on the central posterior capsule consisted of Elschnig pearls type of PCO. Conclusions. Although postoperative LEC behavior is not consistent, residual α-SMA-positive LECs induced fibrotic PCO. The lens fiber cells that migrated from the peripheral capsular bag or that were differentiated in situ covered the central posterior capsule, forming Elschnig pearls with PCO.
Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion Secondary to Infective Endocarditis
Effect of Transepithelial Photorefractive Keratectomy without Mitomycin C in the Treatment of Femtosecond Laser In Situ Keratomileusis Corneal Flap Complications
Purpose. To assess the efficacy and safety of transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (TPRK) without mitomycin C as treatment for femtosecond laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) corneal flap complications. Methods. Eight patients with corneal flap complications that occurred after FS-LASIK (five with eccentric flaps, two with buttonhole flaps, and one with a thick flap) were included in the study. Patients were treated with TPRK without mitomycin C between two weeks and twelve months after surgery. The postoperative manifest refraction, uncorrected distance visual acuity, and haze formation were assessed during six months of follow-up. Results. The mean manifest refractive spherical and cylinder refraction was 0.16 ± 0.26 and −0.44 ± 0.33 diopters, respectively, at six months postoperatively. The uncorrected distance visual acuity was above 20/25 in all patients after six months of follow-up. No haze formation was detected. Conclusions. TPRK without mitomycin C appears to be a safe and effective treatment for FS-LASIK corneal flap complications.
Pars Plana Vitrectomy versus Intravitreal Injection of Ranibizumab in the Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema Associated with Vitreomacular Interface Abnormalities
Purpose. To compare the efficacy of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) versus intravitreal injection (IVI) of ranibizumab (RBZ) in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) associated with vitreomacular interface abnormalities (VMIA). Methods. The records of patients presenting with DME and VMIA throughout 2016 to 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group I received IVIs of RBZ and group II underwent PPV with internal limiting membrane peeling. The main outcome measures were the change in the LogMAR corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and central subfield thickness (CSFT) on optical coherence tomography over 6 months. Results. At 6 months, mean CDVA improved by 0.22 ± 0.21 in group I patients , while in group II, it improved only by 0.09 ± 0.22 . Fifty-five percent of group I and 60% of group II patients had stable CDVA (within 2 lines from baseline) at 6 months. Significant improvement in vision (gain of 2 or more lines) was seen in 45% and 30%, respectively. Worsening of vision (loss of 2 or more lines) was seen only in 2 patients in group II, but none in group I. The mean CSFT improved significantly in both groups (by 162 µ and 216 µ, respectively; ). The mean CSFT at 6 months was similar in both groups (354 µ and 311 µ, respectively; ). Conclusions. Both treatments resulted in anatomical improvement of DME with concurrent VMIA. Visual improvement was more pronounced in the IVI group, although this may have been affected by other confounding factors.
Evaluation of Conjunctival Autografting Augmented with Mitomycin C Application versus Ologen Implantation in the Surgical Treatment of Recurrent Pterygium
Objectives. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of augmenting conjunctival autografting with intraoperative mitomycin C (MMC) application versus Ologen implantation in the management of recurrent pterygium. Materials and Methods. This prospective randomised study included 63 eyes of 63 patients, with recurrent nasal pterygium, who presented to the outpatient clinic of Menoufia University Hospital in Shebin El Kom and Manshiet Soltan from January 2016 to December 2019. Patients were randomly enrolled into two groups. Group A included 32 eyes of 32 patients who underwent conjunctival autografting augmented with the topical application of MMC (0.2 mg/mL), and group B included 31 eyes of 31 patients who underwent conjunctival autografting augmented with Ologen implantation. All the patients underwent follow-up examinations for a period of 24 months. During each visit, a complete ophthalmic examination was performed. Pterygium regrowth of 1 mm or more, over the cornea, was considered a recurrence. Results. In the MMC group, no recurrence was reported during the 24-month follow-up period. In the Ologen implantation group, recurrence was reported in 2 (8%) eyes. The time interval from surgery to recurrence was 5 months in one case and 8 months in the other. No other serious postoperative complications were reported, and there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in this regard. Conclusion. Ologen implantation with conjunctival autografting shows promising results in the surgical management of recurrent pterygium with mild non-vision-threatening postoperative complications comparable to that of MMC application with conjunctival autografting. Registration number: ClinicalTrials.govNCT04419038.
Clinical and Microbiological Profile of Bacterial and Fungal Suspected Corneal Ulcer at University of Gondar Tertiary Eye Care and Training Centre, Northwest Ethiopia
Background. A corneal ulcer is a major cause of monocular blindness in developing countries, including Ethiopia. Its etiology varies based on its geographical location and climatic conditions. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to assess the clinical and microbiological profile of suspected bacterial and fungal corneal ulcers at the Tertiary Eye Care and Training Centre at Gondar University. Methods. A cross-sectional hospital-based study of corneal ulcer cases was performed from February to October 2019. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Corneal scrapings were used to classify bacterial and fungal pathogens. The specimens were inoculated on BHI media and sub-cultured on culture media for the separate cultivation of bacteria and fungi. Biochemical tests have been carried out to classify bacteria. Following CLSI, the antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial isolates was carried out. Wet mounting, Lactophenol cotton blue staining, and colony characteristics on SDA were used to classify fungal species. The data were analyzed with version 20 of the SPSS. Results. A total of 30 suspected bacterial and fungal keratitis patients have been enrolled in this study. The visual acuity presented in 90% of the affected eyes was in the category of blindness (<3/60). In 71% of the cases, clinically presumed risk factors were identified. Trauma was the most common risk factor found in 46% of cases, followed by keratitis exposure (13%). Of the corneal scrape tests, 76.6% were positive for bacteria and fungi. Fungi were identified in 53.3% of corneal ulcers followed by 33.3% of bacterial growth. The commonest fungi and bacteria isolated were Aspergillus species (69%) and S. aureus, respectively. The prevalence of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 2 (40%). The identified Pseudomonas species were susceptible to Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin but resistant to Ceftriaxone. Conclusion. The primary microbial agents for corneal ulcers were fungi, and trauma was the most significant risk factor associated with corneal ulcers. To avoid chronic ocular morbidity and blindness, early identification of the etiologic agent and the provision of adequate management are recommended.