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Journal of Ophthalmology publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye.
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Age-Related Physiologic Thinning Rate of the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Different Levels of Myopia
Purpose. To investigate the effect of refractive error on the physiologic thinning rate of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in healthy eyes. Materials and Methods. This study analyzed 223 eyes of 141 healthy subjects followed for more than 5 years and underwent at least five serial spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) examinations. Longitudinal RNFL measurements were analyzed by linear mixed models incorporating follow-up duration, baseline RNFL thickness, spherical equivalent (SE), age, intraocular pressure, and visual field mean deviation. Thinning rates were classified according to SE into three groups: nonmyopic (NM; >0 D), mild-to-moderately myopic (MM; >–6 D and ≤0 D), and highly myopic (HM; ≤–6 D). Results. The overall slopes of change in RNFL thickness over time in the NM, MM, and HM groups were −0.305 ± 0.128, −0.294 ± 0.068, and −0.208 ± 0.097 μm/yr, respectively. Slopes of RNFL thickness changes in these groups were −0.514 ± 0.248, −0.520 ± 0.133, and −0.528 ± 0.188 μm/yr, in the superior quadrant; −0.084 ± 0.145, 0.107 ± 0.082, and −0.161 ± 0.112 μm/yr, in the temporal quadrant; −0.807 ± 0.242, −0.794 ± 0.130, and −0.727 ± 0.183 μm/yr, in the inferior quadrant; and 0.160 ± 0.157, 0.118 ± 0.084, and 0.429 ± 0.119 μm/yr, in the nasal quadrant. Overall and in all four quadrants, there was no significant difference in the rate of RNFL thickness change among the three groups. Conclusions. Refractive error did not affect the physiologic thinning rate of RNFL when assessed by SD OCT.
Clinical Features and Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients with Retinoblastoma in Turkish Children Older Than 5 Years of Age
Purpose. The diagnosis and management of retinoblastoma can be difficult in older children. This study reports the clinical features and long-term outcomes of such patients in a Turkish patient population. Methods. Medical records of 18 patients, between January 1992 and December 2017, were reviewed retrospectively. Results. Of 298 consecutive patients with retinoblastoma, 18 (6%) were at the age of 5 years and older. The median age at diagnosis was 9 years (range, 5–18 years). Misdiagnosis was noted in 8 patients (44.4%). Treatment options included enucleation in 16 patients (88.8%), adjuvant systemic chemotherapy in 3 (16.6%), intra-arterial chemotherapy in one (5.5%), and additional orbital irradiation in one (5.5%). After a median follow-up of 97 months (range, 6–252 months), all patients survived without any recurrence. Conclusions. Our series showed that 6% of patients with retinoblastoma were 5 years of age and older. Over a 15-year period, ocular salvage rate of 11.2% and survival rate of 100% were attained.
Sustained Intraocular Pressure Rise after the Treat and Extend Regimen at 3 Years: Aflibercept versus Ranibizumab
Purpose. To determine the risk factors associated with sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) rise in patients enrolled in the treat and extend (T&E) protocol receiving aflibercept/ranibizumab therapy for 3 years. Design. Retrospective, observational chart review. Setting. Multicentric. Patients. 789 patients (1021 eyes; 602 males) enrolled in T&E using aflibercept/ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema (DME), wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), or macular edema in retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Intervention. The history, examination (clinical and special investigations), and treatment records were thoroughly scrutinized. Sustained IOP rise was defined as a rise in IOP above baseline by ≥6 mmHg and/or >24 mmHg on 2 or more consecutive visits. The Wilk–Shapiro test was used for confirming normality of data. The Mantel–Haenszel test and generalized estimating equations were used to analyse multicentric data as well as to analyse data from both eyes of the same patients in the event that both eyes were under therapy. The relative risk, chi-square test (with and without Yates’ correction), and univariate and multivariate analysis were used wherever appropriate. Statistical significance was set at . The primary outcome measure was the determination of risk factors for sustained IOP rise with ranibizumab/aflibercept therapy. Secondary outcome measures included determining the incidence of IOP rise (short term and sustained), visual field, and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) changes. Results. The mean follow-up was 42.4 months. Male gender, South Asian ethnicity, older age, presence of AMD and vein occlusion, use of ranibizumab, higher number of injections, narrow angles, switch to bevacizumab/ranibizumab, and preexisting glaucoma were associated with sustained IOP rise. No significant visual field and RNFL changes were seen. The overall incidence was 8.91%. No patient required filtering surgery. No patient with IOP rise returned to baseline. Conclusion. IOP rise is an important consideration as the chronicity of the condition can eventually lead to glaucomatous changes in eyes with already compromised vision. Follow-ups and use of appropriate therapy can be determined correspondingly.
Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy in Congolese Patients
Purpose. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is a visually debilitating disease that mostly affects people of African and Asian heritage. Indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) is the recommended exploratory method for definitive diagnosis. The disease has been extensively described in Asians and Caucasians, but not in Africans. This study was conducted to document the clinical presentation and optical coherence tomography features of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) in Congolese patients. Methods. A prospective case series of patients with PCV was performed between January 2017 and June 2019. Routine ocular examination was performed including best corrected visual acuity measurement, slit-lamp examination, dilated direct fundoscopy, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). The diagnosis was based on a combination of clinical and OCT signs. Results. Fourteen patients were diagnosed with PCV during this period. The average age was 64.7 ± 6.9 years. There were 8 females. Ten (71.4%) patients had systemic hypertension. Most patients (n = 9, 64.3%) had bilateral involvement. Blurred vision was the most common complaint (71.4%). The main clinical presentation was subretinal exudates, seen in 19 (82.6%) eyes of 11 (78.6%) patients and subretinal hemorrhage in 10 (43.5%) eyes. Macular localization was found in 16 eyes (69.5%) of 12 (85.7%) patients. Drusen were observed in 35.7% of the patients. On OCT imaging, thumb-like pigment epithelial detachment and subretinal exudation were the most frequent features, observed in 92.9% and 71.4% of the patients, respectively. Conclusions. PCV in Congolese patients showed features that are more similar to those observed in Caucasians. In this setting where indocyanine green angiography is not available, OCT facilitates the diagnosis of PCV.
Assessing the Performance of Daily Intake of a Homotaurine, Carnosine, Forskolin, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B6, and Magnesium Based Food Supplement for the Maintenance of Visual Function in Patients with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma
Background. Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy, which causes a continuous loss of retinal ganglion cells. Given the neurodegenerative nature of glaucoma, the necessity for neuroprotective intervention still arises, to be added alongside hypotonic therapy. Objective. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of daily intake of a homotaurine, carnosine, forskolin, vitamins B1, B2, and B6, folic acid, and magnesium based supplement (GANGLIOLIFE®) on the progression rates of the visual field in patients with progressive POAG despite good tonometric compensation and to assess the most suitable dosage. Methods. This is a monocentric nonrandomized experimental clinical study. Patients with mean deviation (MD) ranging from −2 dB to −15 dB with MD progression ≥1 dB in the previous year and IOP values of ≤18 mm Hg were included. All the patients underwent supplement therapy for a period of 6 months. For the first 2 months, they took 2 tablets a day, and for the following 4 months, 1 tablet a day. The patients were assessed before the start of treatment, time 0 (T0), after 2 months (T1), and after 6 months (T2) of therapy. At each check-up, patients were given a full eye test including perimetry, RNFL, and GCC using FD-OCT, PERG, contrast sensitivity, and QoL evaluation using the Glaucoma Symptom Scale questionnaire and National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25. Results. 31 patients with a mean age of 70.80 ± 8.77 were included. At T1 and T2, the mean values of MD were lessened (MD = −5.37 ± −2.91, , and MD = −5.48 ± 3.15, , respectively) compared to T0 (MD = -5.98 ± 2.83). Patients also demonstrated a significant reduction in IOP (), improved light sensitivity () and contrast sensitivity (), and a better quality of life (). Conclusions. Treatment with a supplement which includes homotaurine, carnosine, forskolin, vitamins B1, B2, and B6, folic acid, and magnesium has been shown to be able to slow down the rate of progression of functional damage and improve visual function after 2 and 6 months of daily intake. Quality of life showed significant improvement.
Multivariate Regression Analysis to Predict Postoperative Refractive Astigmatism in Cataract Surgery
Purpose. To assess the correlation between postoperative refractive astigmatism and preoperative parameters in cataract surgery. Methods. Left eyes of 100 consecutive patients scheduled for cataract surgery with a 2.4 mm clear corneal incision were examined prospectively. Refractive astigmatism was measured using an autokerato/refractometer. Corneal astigmatism of the total cornea was calculated using a Scheimpflug camera. The vertical/horizontal component (J0) and oblique component (J45) of refractive and total corneal astigmatism were determined using power vector analysis. Refractive astigmatism at 8 weeks postoperatively was estimated using multivariate linear regression analysis. Independent variables analyzed included age, sex, refractive astigmatism, total corneal astigmatism, sphere, intraocular pressure, corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, axial length, and pupil diameter. Results. Multivariate regression analysis identified total corneal J0 and age as significant contributors to postoperative refractive J0 ( and , respectively). The standard partial regression coefficients in the multiple regression analysis were 0.59 and −0.16 for total corneal J0 and age, respectively. Significant contributors to postoperative refractive J45 were total corneal J45 and lens thickness ( and , respectively). The standard partial regression coefficients were 0.79 and −0.15 for total corneal J45 and lens thickness, respectively. Conclusion. These results suggest that preoperative total corneal astigmatism is the most significant predictor of postoperative refractive astigmatism when performing astigmatism correction in cataract surgery.