Atropine 0.01% for the Control of Myopia in Chinese Children: Effect on Accommodation Functions and Pupil SizeRead the full article
Journal of Ophthalmology publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye.
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Choroidal Thickness and Urinary Albumin Excretion in Type 2 Diabetic Patients without Retinopathy
The role of retinal vasculature’s dysfunction in the physiopathology of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) has been extensively described. Recently, the existence of a diabetic choroidal vasculopathy has been proposed. The purpose of this study was to compare choroidal thickness (CT) in nondiabetic patients and in type 2 diabetic patients without retinopathy, using EDI SD-OCT. Additionally, considering the diabetic patient group, compare CT in patients with and without microalbuminuria. This retrospective study selected patients sent from primary health-care centers as part of the national screening of diabetic retinopathy. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, absence of diabetic retinopathy, and a 24 hours urinary albumin measurement in the last 3 months at the primary health-care center. Nondiabetic patients were selected from a database in the ophthalmology department, and only healthy patients were included. At the screening visit, all patients performed a complete ophthalmologic examination by the same examiner. All eyes were examined with SD- OCT, and all scans were performed in the EDI mode. Measurements were made at three points: subfoveal, 1500 μm temporally and nasally to the foveal center. We included 110 eyes of 110 diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy and 30 eyes of 30 healthy controls. Mean subfoveal CT was greater in diabetic patients without retinopathy (with normoalbuminuria or microalbuminuria) when compared with nondiabetic patients (). In diabetic patients without retinopathy, the subfoveal and temporal choroid was thicker among patients with microalbuminuria when compared with those of normoalbuminuric patients (). The subfoveal and temporal choroid was thicker among diabetic patients with microalbuminuria compared with nondiabetic patients. (). This study suggests that choroidal changes are present in type 2 diabetic patients even before the clinical development of retinopathy.
Flap Sliding Technique for Managing Flap Striae following Laser In Situ Keratomileusis
Purpose. To assess the efficacy and safety of a simple, noninvasive, “flap-sliding” technique for managing flap striae following laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Methods. This prospective, interventional study included eyes with post-LASIK flap striae. All eyes underwent flap sliding 1-2 days after surgery. Following flap edge epithelialisation, a cellulose sponge was used to gently slide the flap perpendicular to the striae direction. This technique allows for flap striae treatment without flap lifting, avoiding any associated lifting complications. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), and refractive error were monitored one day after the flap-sliding procedure. Results. Fifteen eyes (15 patients) with post-LASIK flap striae were managed using the flap-sliding technique. The procedure did not successfully relocate the flap striae in 1 eye, and flap elevation and floating (using a balanced salt solution) were required. Therefore, 14 eyes were included in post-flap-sliding analyses. The UDVA improved in all patients the first day after the flap-sliding procedure was performed, with 11 of 14 eyes (78.57%) reaching an UDVA of 20/25 or better. Complications following flap sliding occurred in 2 eyes (14.29%). One eye had intraoperative epithelial abrasion, and 1 eye had residual postoperative striae outside of the optical zone. Conclusion. The flap-sliding technique is a simple, noninvasive, efficient, and safe technique for managing post-LASIK flap striae that develop after epithelial healing in the early post-LASIK period. This trial is registered with NCT04055337.
Silicone Oil Emulsification after Vitrectomy for Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment
Purpose. To investigate the characteristics of silicone oil (SO) emulsification after vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and their possible correlations with clinical factors. Methods. The first 2 mL of washing out fluid after SO removal was collected, and used for the measurement of the size and number of SO droplets using a Multisizer® 3 Coulter counter (Beckman Coulter, USA). The correlations between SO droplets and clinical factors were analyzed. Results. A total of 38 patients (23 males, 15 females) who underwent primary PPV with SO injection for RRD and whose retina stayed attached for ≥3 months after SO removal were included in the study. The average number of oil droplets was 1.96 × 106 ± 3.95 × 106/mL (range 0.17 × 106 to 21.71 × 106/ml), and 80.8% (range 64.23%–99.07%) of the droplets were 1-2 μm in diameter. The total number of emulsified SO droplets was not correlated with any clinical factor (all ). When the emulsified SO droplets were divided into groups by their diameter, multiple linear regression revealed that age was negatively correlated with the numbers of 5–7-μm-diameter and 7–12-μm-diameter droplets (both ). Patients using antiglaucoma medications had more 5–7-μm-diameter and 7–12-μm-diameter droplets than those not using (all ). Conclusion. Using a Multisizer® Coulter counter, we successfully determined the number and size of SO droplets after emulsification. We found that the number of 5–12-μm-diameter droplets was higher in younger-age patients and was higher in patients using antiglaucoma eyedrops.
Ocular Surface Disease Index and Ocular Thermography in Keratoconus Patients
Purpose. Keratoconus (KC) has been defined as a “noninflammatory” corneal disease, but recent studies have noted a potential inflammatory origin. We analysed the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and ocular surface temperature (OST) in KC patients compared to controls. Patients and Methods. A total of 179 eyes in 90 patients with KC (topographic keratoconus classification 0-1 to 4, age 36.1 ± 12.5 years, 65.9% males) and 82 eyes in 41 controls (age 36.4 ± 12.8 years, 47.6% males) were examined. The participants completed the OSDI questionnaire and underwent corneal topography, tomography, and thermography. Additional outcome measures were vision- and discomfort-related OSDI subscores and mean OST at the corneal centre during 10 seconds of sustained eye opening after blinking. Results. The OSDI score (31.4 ± 22.4 vs. 17.5 ± 17.9) and vision- (17.7 ± 14.6 vs. 10.5 ± 13.2) and discomfort-related (14.3 ± 10.7 vs. 9.4 ± 10.5) OSDI subscores were significantly higher in KC patients than in controls (). We found no significant difference in the central corneal OST (34.2 ± 0.6°C vs. 34.2 ± 0.7°C; ) between the two groups (). The OSDI score and subscores poorly to fairly correlated with the surface asymmetry index (SAI) and surface regularity index (SRI; r > 0.174, ), but did not correlate with the central corneal OST (r < 0.001). OST also did not correlate with the SAI, SRI, and central corneal thickness (r ≥ −0.086). Conclusion. KC patients had increased OSDI scores and vision- and discomfort-related OSDI subscores without an increase in the OST compared to a normal population. OSDI score/subscores weakly correlate with SAI and SRI but do not correlate with OST in KC patients or controls. Vision- and discomfort-related symptoms of KC have to be managed in parallel in ophthalmological practice, but the necessity of anti-inflammatory treatment cannot be verified through ocular thermography.
Corneal Reinnervation and Sensitivity Recovery after Pterygium Excision
Purpose. To evaluate changes in corneal sensitivity and subbasal nerve density after pterygium excision. Methods. This prospective trial included 22 eyes with nasal primary pterygium and 18 controls. Corneal sensitivity was evaluated using a Cochet–Bonnet esthesiometer in the nasal, superior, temporal, inferior, and center quadrants of the cornea before surgery and 10 days, 1 month, and 3months after surgery. The central cornea was analyzed using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) before surgery and 1 and 3 months after surgery. Subbasal nerve density and other nerve parameters were analyzed using NeuronJ. Nerve tortuosity was evaluated and graded in individual IVCM scans. The tear film break-up time (TBUT) test and Schirmer’s test were performed before surgery, as well as 1 and 3 months after surgery. All the same tests were performed in the controls. Results. All affected eyes showed a significant increase in corneal sensitivity in the nasal corneal quadrant after surgery when compared with preoperative data (F = 37.3; ). Compared with controls, pterygium patients demonstrated decreased corneal subbasal nerve density (), fewer nerve trunks (), and fewer nerve branches (). However, an increased central corneal subbasal nerve density was observed 1 month after surgery compared with preoperative data, after which the density became stable (F = 9.62; ). Nerve tortuosity showed no difference between the two groups or across different time points in patients. Similarly, patients with pterygium demonstrated a decrease in TBUT () when compared with controls. A tendency toward increase was observed in the TBUT test after pterygium excision (F = 2.873; ). However, no difference was observed in Schirmer’s test. Conclusion. Pterygium patients demonstrated deteriorated corneal subbasal nerve fibers when compared with healthy controls in terms of nerve length, nerve trunks, and nerve branches. Therefore, pterygium excision improves corneal sensitivity and increases corneal subbasal nerve density.
Long-Term Outcome of Vitrectomy with Suitable Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling and Air Tamponade for Highly Myopic Foveoschisis-Associated Lamellar Macular Hole
Purpose. To investigate the outcome of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with suitable internal limiting membrane peeling (ILM) and air tamponade for patients with highly myopic foveoschisis-associated lamellar macular hole (MH). Methods. This retrospective interventional case series included 11 patients with highly myopic foveoschisis-associated lamellar MH who underwent PPV and indocyanine green-aided ILM peeling up to the temporal vascular arcades. Following air tamponade after surgery, all patients were instructed to maintain a face-down position. The patients were followed up for over 1 year and evaluated for MH closure and the best-corrected visual acuity before and after surgery. Results. The mean ± standard deviation values of patient age, axial length, and follow-up duration were 67.82 ± 6.54 years, 29.21 ± 1.95 mm, and 24.27 ± 8.11 months, respectively. After surgery, the lamellar MH closed in all eyes, and 10 eyes showed vision improvement at the 1-month, 3-month, and final follow-up evaluations. One patient showed decreased vision at 2 years after surgery, with patchy chorioretinal atrophy in the macular region. Myopic foveoschisis showed resolution in three eyes and alleviation in eight. Ten patients underwent cataract surgery during PPV. Conclusion. Extension of ILM peeling up to the temporal vascular arcades and air tamponade after PPV may improve the visual function and rate of MH closure for patients with highly myopic foveoschisis-associated lamellar MH.