Association of Paracentral Acute Middle Maculopathy with Visual Prognosis in Retinal Artery Occlusion: A Retrospective Cohort StudyRead the full article
Journal of Ophthalmology publishes original research articles and review articles related to the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye.
Chief Editor, Professor Steven Abcouwer, is a Research Professor in Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences at the University of Michigan, USA. His research is aimed at understanding the various mechanisms/processes that contribute to the development of diabetic retinopathy.
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Recent Advances and the Mechanism of Astaxanthin in Ophthalmological Diseases
Astaxanthin (AST) is a naturally occurring carotenoid that has strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptosis effects and is used for the prevention of cancer. There is growing evidence that AST has multiple protective effects against various eye diseases. This article reviews the function and the potential mechanism of AST in dry eye syndrome, keratitis, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, high intraocular pressure, and other ocular diseases. It provides a theoretical basis for the clinical application of AST as a potential nutraceutical.
Factors Affecting Visual Prognosis of Myopic Foveoschisis after Macular Buckling
Purpose. To analyze the visual prognosis of macular buckling in patients with high myopia foveoschisis (FS) and to identify factors that predict the final visual outcome. Methods. We retrospectively included 155 eyes of 155 patients who underwent foveoschisis-related macular buckling. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and coexisting macular pathologies were assessed as a measure of surgical outcome, and multivariate linear regression was performed to identify factors affecting final visual prognosis. Results. The mean preoperative BCVA was 1.19 ± 0.55 logMAR (20/308), while the mean postoperative BCVA was 0.82 ± 0.51 logMAR (20/133) (). Anatomical success was achieved in 151/155 eyes (97.42%) after the first surgery and in 155/155 eyes (100%) at the 2-year follow-up visit. Both preoperative and postoperative BCVA were better in eyes without macular hole (MH) than in eyes with MH. In patients with MH, the postoperative BCVA was significantly better than that before surgery when the MH was closed. However, the difference was not significant in patients with unclosed MH. Univariate analysis identified that baseline BCVA, age, MH, atrophic myopic maculopathy category, and postoperative intraretinal cyst were significantly related to BCVA at the postoperative 2-year follow-up. Multivariate analysis revealed that preoperative BCVA and age were significant factors. Conclusion. Better preoperative BCVA and younger age are predictors of better prognosis. Prompt surgery is advised for patients with myopic foveoschisis to improve their visual prognosis.
Finite Element Analysis of Cornea and Lid Wiper during Blink, with and without Contact Lens
Ocular surface disorders such as Lid Wiper Epitheliopathy (LWE), Superior Epithelial Arcuate Lesion (SEAL), and contact lens-induced Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency (LSCD) as well as Superior Limbic Keratoconjunctivitis (SLK) affect one’s quality of life. Hence, it is imperative to investigate the underlying causes of these ocular surface disorders. During blink, the undersurface of the eyelid tends to interact with the cornea and the conjunctiva. The presence of a contact lens can add to the biomechanical frictional changes on these surfaces. To estimate these changes with and without a contact lens, a finite element model (FEM) of the eyelid wiper, eyeball, and contact lens was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics. Biomechanical properties such as von Mises stress (VMS) and displacement were calculated. Our study concluded that (a) maximum VMS was observed in the lid wiper in the absence of contact lens in the eye and (b) maximum VMS was observed in the superior 1.3 mm of the cornea in the presence of the contact lens in the eye. Thus, the development of friction-induced ocular surface disorders such as LWE, SLK, SEAL, and LSCD could be attributed to increased VMS. FEA is a useful simulation tool that helps us to understand the effect of blink on a normal eye with and without CL.
Endothelial Cell Loss, Cumulative Dissipated Energy, and Surgically Induced Astigmatism in Sutureless Scleral Tunnel Phaco-Assisted Cataract Extraction in Advanced Cataracts
Purpose. To evaluate sutureless scleral tunnel phaco-assisted cataract extraction in regards to the cumulative dissipated energy (CDE) used, the resulting endothelial cell loss (ECL), and the surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) in advanced cataracts. Methods. A prospective interventional uncontrolled case series was performed. Patients with advanced cataracts according to the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III) had sutureless scleral tunnel phaco-assisted cataract extraction. They were followed up one week, one month, and 3 months postoperatively for SIA and ECL. The used CDE was recorded. Results. The study included 198 eyes: 36 eyes (18.2%) with LOCS III grade nuclear opalescence (NO4) cataracts, 102 eyes (51.5%) with LOCS III grade NO5, and 60 eyes (30.3%) with LOCS III grade NO6. Three months postoperatively, the mean SIA was 0.94 ± 0.71D. The endothelial cell density (ECD) was reduced significantly to 2341.31 ± 471 cells/mm2 () with a mean ECL of 5.39%. The mean CDE and ECL% were 0.174 ± 0.46 U/S (2.07%), 0.859 ± 0.42 U/S (5.01%), and 2.306 ± 0.89 U/S (8.01%) in LOCS III grade NO4, NO5, and NO6, respectively. The overall mean CDE was 1.17 ± 0.99 U/S, which was significantly correlated with the ECL (). Conclusion. Sutureless scleral tunnel phaco-assisted cataract extraction in advanced cataracts enabled reduction in CDE with good preservation of the ECD and acceptable SIA.
Statistical Analysis on Time to Blindness of Glaucoma Patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital: Application of Accelerated Failure Time Model
Background. Glaucoma is one of the most frequent vision-threatening eye diseases. It is frequently associated with excessive intraocular pressure (IOP), which can cause vision loss and damaged optic nerves. The main objective of this study was to model time to blindness of glaucoma patients by using appropriate statistical models. Study Design. A Retrospective Community-Based Longitudinal Study design was applied. Materials and Procedures. The data were obtained from Ophthalmology Department of JUSH from the period of January 2016 to August 2020. The glaucoma patient’s information was extracted from the patient card and 321 samples were included in the study. To discover the factors that affect time to blindness of glaucoma patients’, researchers used the Accelerated Failure Time (AFT) model. Results. 81.3 percent of the 321 glaucoma patients were blind. Unilaterally and bilaterally blinded female and male glaucoma patients were 24.92 and 56.38%, respectively. After glaucoma disease was confirmed, the median time to the blindness of both eyes and one eye was 12 months. The multivariable log-logistic accelerated failure-time model fits the glaucoma patient’s time to blind dataset well. The result showed that the chance of blindness of glaucoma patients who have absolute stage of glaucoma, medium duration of diagnosis, long duration of diagnosis, and IOP greater than 21 mmHg were high with parameters (ϕ = 2.425, value = 0.049, 95% CI [2.249, 2.601]), (ϕ = 1.505, value = 0.001, 95% CI [0.228, 0.589]), (ϕ = 3.037, value = 0.001, 95% C.I [2.850, 3.22]) and (ϕ 0.851, value = 0.034, 95% C.I [0.702, 0.999]), respectively. Conclusion. The multivariable log-logistic accelerated failure time model evaluates the prognostic factors of time to blindness of glaucoma patients. Under this finding, duration of diagnosis, IOP, and stage of glaucoma were a key determinant factors of time to blindness of glaucoma patients’. Finally, the log-logistic accelerated failure-time model was the best-fitted parametric model based on AIC and BIC values.
A Global and Sector-Based Comparison of OCT Angiography and Visual Field Defects in Glaucoma
Purpose. To evaluate the correlation of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with visual field for global and sector-based indices among glaucoma and glaucoma-suspected eyes. Patients and Methods. This is a retrospective study, and in total, 48 glaucoma eyes and 31 glaucoma suspect eyes were included. The correlation between visual field parameters and radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) vessel density via OCTA was compared to the correlation with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness via SD-OCT. The RPC vessel density and RNFL thickness were divided into eight sectors, which included the temporal upper, temporal lower, superotemporal, inferotemporal, superonasal, inferonasal, nasal upper, and nasal lower sectors. Pearson correlations with 95% confidence intervals were calculated with resampling, and correlations were compared with a Fisher Z transformation. Results. Both RPC vessel density (R = 0.63, 95% CI [0.24, 0.86]) and RNFL thickness (R = 0.49, 95% CI [0.23, 0.69]) were correlated with the mean deviation when comparing global indices of glaucoma patients. In glaucoma suspects, the correlations between the mean deviation and RPC vessel density (R = 0.21, 95% CI [−0.05, 0.49]) and RNFL thickness (R = 0.01, 95% CI [−0.35, 0.39]) were not significant. Glaucoma eyes had the highest correlation between the mean sensitivity and RPC vessel density and RNFL thickness for the superotemporal, superonasal, temporal upper, and inferotemporal sectors. Conclusion. Across a diverse population and heterogeneous glaucoma types, RPC vessel density measurements correlate with global and sector-wise visual field indices similar to RNFL thickness.