Application of ImageJ in Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCT-A): A Literature ReviewRead the full article
Journal of Ophthalmology publishes original research articles and review articles related to the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye.
Chief Editor, Professor Steven Abcouwer, is a Research Professor in Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences at the University of Michigan, USA. His research is aimed at understanding the various mechanisms/processes that contribute to the development of diabetic retinopathy.
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Gender- and Age-Related Differences of Ocular Biometric Parameters in Patients Undergoing Cataract Surgery in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Purpose. The aim of the study is to determine the distribution and mutual relationship of ocular biometric parameters, as well as to evaluate gender- and age-related differences in patients undergoing cataract surgery in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Materials and Methods. It was a retrospective cross-sectional study of consecutive patients who underwent cataract surgery between January 2017 and December 2021 in a tertiary care clinic. All biometric measurements were performed using the optical biometer OA-2000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan). Results. The study evaluated 1278 eyes from 1278 consecutive cataract patients. The average age of all included patients was 69.4 ± 9.98 (range 40–96). A total of 672 eyes (52.58%) were from females. The mean axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), and mean keratometry were 23.46 ± 1.18 mm, 3.17 ± 0.40 mm, 4.54 ± 0.48 mm, and 43.42 ± 1.55D, respectively. Corneal astigmatism of ≥1D, >2D and >3D was found in 33.4%, 7.8% and 2.5% patients, respectively. Females were found to have shorter AL ( < 0.0001), shallower ACD ( < 0.0001) and steeper corneas ( < 0.0001). In both genders, AL, ACD and with the rule astigmatism showed a decreasing trend ( = 0.0001), while keratometry, the average cylinder, and against the rule astigmatism showed an increasing trend ( = 0.0001) with increasing age. Furthermore, in both genders, there was an increasing trend in ACD ( = 0.0001), and a decreasing trend in keratometry ( = 0.0001) and LT ( = 0.0001) with increasing AL. Conclusions. This study provides useful reference data on ocular biometry for cataract surgeons in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Female patients tend to have steeper corneas, shorter AL and shallower AC than males, and these differences are independent of age or AL.
A Prospective Study of Clinical Features of Anterior Uveitis in Taiwan
In this study, we reported the patterns, epidemiology, and clinical features of anterior uveitis (AU) in Taiwan, an area of Eastern Asia. This prospective, cross-sectional case series study was performed to identify patients with AU at two tertiary medical centers (Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital) located at the southern Taiwan between December 1, 2018, and March 31, 2020. The clinical diagnoses, ocular presentations, and laboratory data, including the results of the aqueous polymerase chain reaction tests, were investigated in these patients. A total of 112 patients, with a mean age of 48.9 years, were included. Most patients (87.5%) presented with unilateral eye disease, with 30 cases of ocular hypertension at the first presentation (27%). The most common clinical diagnoses were idiopathic AU (37.5%), human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27-associated acute AU (25.0%), and herpetic AU (18.8%). Among patients with herpetic AU, cytomegalovirus (CMV) was the most common pathogen (17/21, 81%). Compared to HLA-B27-associated acute AU, CMV-related AU was mostly observed in patients that were older in age, exhibited higher intraocular pressure, more keratic precipitates, greater iris atrophy, and more pseudophakia, but was least reported in those with posterior synechiae. This prospective study identified the pattern and clinical features of AU in southern Taiwan.
Postintravitreal Injection Endophthalmitis: Incidence, Characteristics, Management, and Outcome
Purpose. Postintravitreal injection (IVI) endophthalmitis is a rare but devastating complication. Herein, we report the incidence ,and clinical and microbiological characteristics, as well as the visual outcome, in IVIs endophthalmitis in two medical centers. Methods. All patients undergoing intravitreal injections between 1/2018 and 12/2019 in two large medical centers were analyzed for post-IVI endophthalmitis. Results. Of the total of 51,356 IVIs performed, 23 cases of post-IVI endophthalmitis were diagnosed, yielding an overall incidence of 0.045%. The median interval from IVI to symptoms onset was 2 days (IQR: 1–5). Cultures were positive in 56% of the cases (100% Gram-positive bacteria and 76% coagulase-negative staphylococcus). Parameters associated with higher culture-positive rates included samples taken during vitrectomy, WBC on vitreous smear, the number of IVIs in the 12 months prior to presentation, and the time interval from last IVI to diagnostic sampling. At 6- and 12-month follow-up, the median change in VA (logMAR) was −1.10 (IQR: (−1.32)–(−0.40)) and −1.02 (IQR: (−1.10)–(−0.30)), respectively. Younger age and better BCVA at presentation were associated with better VA outcome, while positive culture result and systemic steroids treatment were each associated with the worse visual outcome. We found no difference in visual outcomes between PPV and TAI as a primary procedure. Conclusion. Post-IVI endophthalmitis is a rare complication, and most patients do not regain their initial VA. Certain parameters (clinical, microbiological, and therapeutic) may help anticipate the outcome and guide decision making regarding diagnosis and treatment.
A Cross-Sectional Study of Myopia and Morning Melatonin Status in Northern Irish Adolescent Children
Purpose. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between melatonin status and both refractive error and axial length in young adult myopes. This study aimed to determine if this relationship extends to a younger adolescent cohort. Methods. Healthy children aged 12–15 years provided morning saliva samples before attending Ulster University (55°N) for cycloplegic autorefraction and axial length measures. Participants completed questionnaires describing recent sleep habits and physical activity. Salivary melatonin was quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Data collection for all participants occurred over a 1-week period (April 2021). Results. Seventy participants aged 14.3 (95% CI: 14.2—14.5) years were categorised by spherical equivalent refraction [SER] (range: −5.38DS to +1.88DS) into two groups; myopic SER ≤ −0.50DS (n = 22) or nonmyopic −0.50DS < SER ≤ +2.00DS (n = 48). Median morning salivary melatonin levels were 4.52 pg/ml (95% CI: 2.60–6.02) and 4.89 pg/ml (95% CI: 3.18–5.66) for myopic and nonmyopic subjects, respectively, and did not differ significantly between refractive groups ( = 0.91). Melatonin levels were not significantly correlated with SER, axial length, sleep, or activity scores (Spearman’s rank, all > 0.39). Higher levels of physical activity were associated with higher sleep quality (Spearman’s rank, ρ = −0.28, = 0.02). Conclusion. The present study found no significant relationship between morning salivary melatonin levels and refractive error or axial length in young adolescents. This contrasts with outcomes from a previous study of adults with comparable methodology, season of data collection, and geographical location. Prospective studies are needed to understand the discrepancies between adult and childhood findings and evaluate whether melatonin levels in childhood are indicative of an increased risk for future onset of myopia and/or faster axial growth trajectories and myopia progression in established myopes. Future work should opt for a comprehensive dim-light melatonin onset protocol to determine circadian phase.
Evaluation of Fundus Function in Mature Cataract Patients by Visual Electrophysiology
Purpose. To explore the value of visual electrophysiology in evaluating the fundus function of mature cataract patients. Methods. 124 mature cataract patients (153 eyes) were examined before cataract surgery; the examinations included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP), full-field electroretinogram (ffERG), and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG). According to the postoperative fundus conditions, the subjects were divided into two groups: the no fundus disease group and the fundus disease group. Approximately one month after the operation, BCVA was measured, and visual electrophysiology was performed on subjects who had a stable fundus condition and had not received treatment for fundus disease. Results. One month after cataract surgery, BCVA ≤ 0.3 logMAR was found in 60 eyes (96.8%) without fundus disease and 59 eyes (64.8%) with fundus disease. Compared with the group without fundus disease, the preoperative electrophysiological examination of the group with fundus disease showed that the amplitude of ffERG waves and the amplitude density of the P1 wave in the 2nd to 5th rings of mfERG were decreased (all < 0.05). ffERG and mfERG can be used for differential diagnosis of fundus disease (all < 0.05), while PVEP has no significant diagnostic value for fundus disease (all > 0.05). In the group without fundus disease, the amplitude of the PVEP 15′ P100 wave and the amplitude of dark-adapted (DA) 0.01 b-wave, DA 3.0 a-wave, and DA 10.0 a-wave were negatively correlated with postoperative logMAR BCVA (all < 0.05). In the group with fundus disease, the amplitude of PVEP and ffERG and the amplitude density of mfERG were negatively correlated with postoperative logMAR BCVA (all < 0.05). In the eyes of cortical cataracts, some parameters of PVEP, ffERG, and mfERG were significantly different before and after surgery. In the eyes of nuclear cataracts, some parameters of ffERG and mfERG were significantly different before and after surgery. In the eyes of posterior subcapsular cataracts, some parameters of PVEP and ffERG were significantly different before and after surgery. Conclusions. ffERG and mfERG can be used to detect fundus disease in mature cataract patients. The preoperative visual electrophysiological examination has high clinical value in predicting postoperative vision of mature cataract patients with fundus disease. Different types of cataracts have different effects on electrophysiological examination results. When interpreting the electrophysiological report, it is necessary to consider the existence of cataracts. This trial is registered with 2019-K068.
Glaucoma Characteristics and Influencing Factors during the COVID-19 Pandemic in the Huizhou Region
Objective. Glaucoma in individuals who tested positive for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the pandemic outbreak has not been comprehensively studied. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the characteristics and risk factors of glaucoma during the COVID-19 pandemic in Huizhou. Methods. Retrospective data from outpatients with glaucoma at the Huizhou Hospital Affiliated with Guangzhou Medical University and Longmen County People’s Hospital were collected during two periods: the COVID-19 pandemic period (Phase A: December 1, 2022, to January 19, 2023) and the prevention and control period (Phase B: December 1, 2021, to January 19, 2022). The demographic characteristics of the outpatients during both phases were compared. The characteristics of glaucoma in patients with COVID-19 during Phase A were examined. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing the development of acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG) in Phase A patients. Results. The proportion of patients with glaucoma was significantly higher during Phase A than during Phase B at both hospitals. No statistically significant differences were observed between patients with glaucoma during Phases A and B for age, sex, and region. A high COVID-19-positive rate was associated with old age, females, AACG, newly diagnosed glaucoma, and binocular involvement during phase A. Females testing positive for COVID-19, glaucoma that started after testing positive for COVID-19, and a history of medication use were associated with a higher proportion of AACG in phase A. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified testing positive for COVID-19 as an independent potential risk factor for developing AACG. Conclusion. In summary, during the COVID-19 pandemic in Huizhou, patients with COVID-19 were primarily affected by AACG, especially females, older individuals, and those with binocular involvement. Testing positive for COVID-19 increases the risk of developing AACG.