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Journal of Ophthalmology publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye.
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Evaluation of a Tangential Map-Based Nomogram for Intrastromal Corneal Ring Segments’ Implantation in Keratoconus: One Year Results
Purpose. To evaluate a new tangential map-based nomogram versus the axial map-based nomogram for ICRS in keratoconus. Methods. A prospective case series study including 64 eyes of 64 patients who underwent ICRS implantation. Cone location was determined for each eye with two maps: the axial and the tangential. Appropriate ring selection was determined using two surgical nomograms: axial map-based and tangential map-based. Visual, refractive, and topographic outcomes were assessed before, as well as at 3, 6, and 12 months after ICRS implantation. Results. The cone location, and consequently the ring selection, was significantly different in the two nomograms with a “centralization tendency” in the tangential map. In the axial group, UDVA and CDVA improved from 0.12 ± 0.04 and 0.24 ± 0.08 to 0.28 ± 0.08 and 0.4 ± 0.1, respectively. Similarly, MRSE substantially decreased from −6.7 ± 3.3 to −1.2 ± 1.1D at 12 months after the procedure. In the tangential group, UDVA and CDVA improved from 0.09 ± 0.06 and 0.2 ± 0.1 to 0.5 ± 0.2 and 0.7 ± 0.2, respectively. MRSE substantially decreased from −4.9 ± 1D to −1.00 ± 1.6D at 12 months after the procedure. The UDVA gain was significantly higher in the tangential group: 0.35 compared to 0.15 at 12 months, . Similarly, the gain in the CDVA was 0.4 and 0.15 in the tangential and axial groups, respectively, at 12 months, . At 12 months, the tangential map showed superiority in UDVA, CDVA, and MRSE in the peripheral cone location, but not the central and paracentral ones. Conclusion. The tangential map-based nomogram attained better visual and refractive outcomes at 1 year. In addition, the cone location was significantly different between both maps with a centralization tendency in the tangential one.
The Therapeutic Effect of Combination of Orbital Decompression Surgery and Methylprednisolone Pulse Therapy on Patients with Bilateral Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy
Purpose. To investigate the synergic effect of combination of orbital decompression surgery and methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPT) and MPT alone on the visual function in patients with bilateral dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON). Methods. For each involved patient with bilateral DON, only one eye was treated with orbital decompression surgery which was conducted by the same doctor, and each of them received MPT after surgery. If the visual function deteriorated despite treatment, patients would switch to the other treatment. All the patients were followed up for 3 months after surgery. Clinical features of patients including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), proptosis, upper eyelid retraction, and clinical activity score (CAS) before and after surgery were analyzed, respectively. Visual field and visual evoked potential (VEP) tests were also performed. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed ranks sum test were used to analyze the data. Result. A prospective cohort of 23 patients with bilateral DON was enrolled in this cohort study. No patients failed to the therapy or switched to another treatment. The quantitative variables were shown as means and standard deviations (SD). After 3 months of combined treatment of orbital decompression surgery and MPT, BCVA (logMAR) improved, proptosis was reduced and the upper eyelid retraction was relieved in both eyes of patients; however, these improvements were more significant in the operated eyes than in the fellow (nonoperated) eyes. IOP decreased significantly in the operated eyes (), while having no significant change in the nonoperated eyes (). CAS reduced by 0.8 ± 1.37 in the operated eyes and by 0.9 ± 1.28 in the nonoperated eyes (, , respectively), but its reduction extent showed no significant difference between the operated and fellow eyes (). Visual field tests showed the mean deviation (MD) of the operated and fellow eyes both increased significantly after 3 months of treatment (, , respectively). MD of the operated eyes increased by 8.1 ± 7.72 dB, which was more significant than that of the fellow eyes which increased by 3.4 ± 5.02 dB (). The VEP test showed that, in the operated eyes, the latency of each spatial frequency of P100 was significantly shortened (, respectively), and the amplitude was significantly improved (, respectively); however, there was no significant change in VEP parameters of the fellow eyes (, respectively). The latency in the operated eyes improved by 28.1 ± 29.93 ms in 60′ P100, by 40.2 ± 32.87 ms in 30′ P100, and by 20.7 ± 25.87 ms in 15′ P100 respectively, which was more excellent in the degree of the improvement than that in the fellow eyes (, , , respectively). Conclusion. A combination of orbital decompression and MPT can significantly improve visual function in patients with DON, reduce intraocular pressure, and relieve clinical symptoms such as upper eyelid retraction and proptosis, while MPT alone has a limited effect. For DON patients, orbital decompression should be performed promptly to improve the visual function.
Epidemiological Study of Uveal Melanoma from US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (2010–2015)
Purpose. Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular malignancy, and the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) changed its staging methodology from 2010, incorporating notable changes into the T-staging. There were few literatures evaluating the epidemiological trend and risk factors of survival in multicenter longitudinal studies regarding the new staging system. Methods. We performed population-based cohort analyses using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database to identify patients with primary uveal melanoma from 2010 to 2015. Patients and potential prognosis indicators were extracted from SEER 18. Incidence rates, incidence rates ratios (IRR), annual percent changes (APC) in rate, hazard ratios (HR), 5-year accumulative overall survival (OS), and disease-specific survival (DSS) were calculated. Results. A total of 2631 patients for incidence analysis and 1142 patients for survival analysis were retrieved. The overall incidence of uveal melanoma was 4.637 per million (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.458–4.821), which was significantly elevated by average APC of 4.215% (). Females had significantly lower incidence (4.076 per million, IRR, 0.768, 95% CI, 0.710–0.832) with noticeable differences among age, race, origin, and laterality in sex-stratified analyses as well. Survival analyses revealed 5-year accumulative OS and DSS for patients with uveal melanoma of 61.8% and 66.5%, respectively. Age, AJCC stage, and radiation therapy were found to be consistent predictors in both univariate and multivariate analysis models. Conclusion. Incidence of uveal melanoma increased by significant APC and varied between genders. Determinants of survival included age at diagnosis, AJCC stage, and radiation therapy.
Two Pathogenic Gene Mutations Identified Associating with Congenital Cataract and Iris Coloboma Respectively in a Chinese Family
Purpose. To screen out pathogenic genes in a Chinese family with congenital cataract and iris coloboma. Material and Methods. A three-generation family with congenital cataract and iris coloboma from a Han ethnicity was recruited. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples collected from all individuals in the family. Whole exon sequencing was employed for screening the disease-causing gene mutations in the proband, and Sanger sequencing was used for other members of the family and a control group of 500 healthy individuals. Bioinformatics analysis and three-dimensional structure predictions were used to predict the impact of amino acid changes on protein structure and function. Results. The candidate genes of cataract and iris coloboma were successfully screened out. A heterozygote mutation, CRYGD c.70C>A (p.P24T), was identified as cosegregating with congenital cataracts, while another heterozygous mutation, WFS1 c.1514G>C (p.C505S), which had not been reported previously, cosegregated with congenital iris coloboma. Bioinformatic analyses and three-dimensional structure prediction proved that the three-dimensional structures of WFS1 p.C505S and CRYGD p.P24T changed markedly and may contribute significantly to iris coloboma and congenital cataract, respectively. Conclusions. We report a novel mutation, WFS1 p.C505S, and a known mutation, CRYGD p.P24T, that cosegregate with iris coloboma and congenital cataract, respectively, in a Chinese family. This is the first time the association of WFS1 p.C505S with iris coloboma has been demonstrated, although CRYGD p.P24T has been widely reported as being associated with congenital cataract, especially in the Eastern Asian population. These findings may have future therapeutic benefit for the diagnosis of iris coloboma and congenital cataract. The results may also be relevant in further studies aiming to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of iris coloboma and congenital cataract.
Long-Term Effect of Half-Fluence Photodynamic Therapy on Fundus Autofluorescence in Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy
Purpose. To evaluate normalized short-wavelength fundus autofluorescence (SW-FAF) imaging changes over time as a predictive parameter for the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) function in eyes compromised by acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) after indocyanine green angiography-guided verteporfin (Visudyne®, Novartis Pharma, Basel, Switzerland) photodynamic therapy (PDT) with a half-fluence rate (25 J/cm2). Methods. Quantitative data of SW-FAF grey values (SW-FAF GV) from a 350 μm (SW-350) and 1200 μm (SW-1200) diameter circle centered on the fovea and normalized with the level of SW-FAF GV in a 30° image of 20 eyes in 11 patients initially treated for unilateral acute symptomatic CSCR were collected and retrospectively analyzed after 7 years. A 2-sided t-test was calculated to explore the differences of SW-350 and SW-1200 between one month and the long-term follow-up. Results. Mean differences (95% CI) in SW-FAF GV between 1 month and 7 years after half-fluence PDT were 0.07 ± 0.11 for SW-350 ([95% CI: −0.002; 0.14], ) and 0.11 ± 0.15 for SW-1200 ([95% CI: 0.01; 0.21], ). Mean differences in SW-FAF GV of the contralateral untreated eye were 0.06 ± 0.14 for SW-350 ([95% CI: −0.04; 0.17], ) and 0.05 ± 0.13 for SW-1200 ([95% CI: −0.04; 0.15], ). Conclusion. After 7 years, normalized SW-FAF GV were significantly lower in eyes with resolved acute CSCR treated with reduced-fluence PDT compared to the follow-up after 1 month without correlation to explicit pattern changes or structural damages. Half-fluence PDT remains a safe and considerable treatment option in acute CSCR.
Intraoperative Posterior Chamber Irrigation to Enhance Vitreous Cavity Support during Phacoemulsification Cataract Surgery after Vitrectomy
Purpose. To report the effectiveness of an intraoperative posterior chamber irrigation technique to enhance vitreous cavity support during postvitrectomy phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Methods. The irrigation technique was performed during phacoemulsification cataract surgery on 10 postvitrectomy eyes (9 patients) with moderate or hard density cataracts and with low vitreous cavity support. A cohesive viscoelastic tamponade was applied to pressurize the anterior chamber to start the procedure. The vitreous cavity was then irrigated using a 26-gauge flushing cannula injecting balanced salt solution under the iris through the zonules, until the vitreous cavity pressure balanced and exceeded the anterior chamber pressure and viscoelastic flowed out from the corneal incision. Intraoperative performance with the irrigation technique, postoperative visual acuity, and anatomy, and complications were retrospectively evaluated. Results. The irrigation procedure instantly enhanced posterior segment pressure before capsulorhexis in 4 eyes, before phacoemulsification in 4 eyes, after phacoemulsification in 2 eyes, before intraocular lens implantation in 6 eyes, and after implantation in 3 eyes. Phacoemulsification cataract surgery was facilitated by the irrigation technique, with a stabilized anterior chamber and robust vitreous cavity support. No complications occurred intraoperatively and postoperatively. At a 3-month follow-up, favorable visual and anatomic outcomes were achieved in all eyes. Conclusions. The irrigation technique balanced the pressure of anterior and posterior segments. Thus, vitreous cavity support and anterior chamber depth were well stabilized during phacoemulsification cataract surgery in postvitrectomy eyes.