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Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2012, Article ID 397178, 11 pages
Review Article

Clinical Applications of the Photopic Negative Response to Optic Nerve and Retinal Diseases

Department of Ophthalmology, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, 19-1 Uchimaru, Iwate, Morioka 020-8505, Japan

Received 18 July 2012; Accepted 16 September 2012

Academic Editor: Suresh Viswanathan

Copyright © 2012 Shigeki Machida. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The photopic negative response (PhNR) in response to a brief flash is a negative-going wave following the b-wave of the cone electroretinogram (ERG) that is driven by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The function of RGCs is objectively evaluated by analysing the PhNR. We reviewed articles regarding clinical use of the PhNR. The PhNR was well correlated with the visual sensitivity obtained by standard automated perimetry and morphometric parameters of the inner retina and optic nerve head in optic nerve and retinal diseases. Moreover, combining the PhNR with focal or multifocal ERG techniques enables the objective assessment of local function of RGCs. The PhNR is therefore likely to become established as an objective functional test for optic nerve and retinal diseases involving RGC injury.