Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2012, Article ID 956705, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/956705
Research Article

Refractive Development in the “ROP Rat”

1Department of Ophthalmology, Children's Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Fegan 4, Boston, MA 02115, USA
2Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
3Department of Ophthalmology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA

Received 6 September 2011; Accepted 8 October 2011

Academic Editor: Shintaro Nakao

Copyright © 2012 Toco Y. P. Chui et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. B. Fulton, J. D. Akula, J. A. Mocko et al., “Retinal degenerative and hypoxic ischemic disease,” Documenta Ophthalmologica, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 55–61, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J.-S. Joyal, N. Sitaras, F. Binet et al., “Ischemic neurons prevent vascular regeneration of neural tissue by secreting semaphorin 3A,” Blood, vol. 117, no. 22, pp. 6024–6035, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. H. C. Fledelius, “Pre-term delivery and the growth of the eye. An oculometric study of eye size around term-time,” Acta Ophthalmologica Supplement, no. 204, pp. 10–15, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H. C. Fledelius, “Pre-term delivery and subsequent ocular development. A 7-10 year follow-up of children screened 1982-84 for ROP. 4) Oculometric—and other metric considerations,” Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 301–305, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. I. G. Morgan, “The biological basis of myopic refractive error,” Clinical and Experimental Optometry, vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 276–288, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. R. Fielder and G. E. Quinn, “Myopia of prematurity: nature, nurture, or disease?” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 2–3, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. R. Fielder, “Retinopathy of prematurity,” in Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, D. Taylor and C. S. Hoyt, Eds., pp. 537–556, Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  8. A. R. O'Connor, T. Stephenson, A. Johnson et al., “Long-term ophthalmic outcome of low birth weight children with and without retinopathy of prematurity,” Pediatrics, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 12–18, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. R. O'Connor, T. J. Stephenson, A. Johnson, M. J. Tobin, S. Ratib, and A. R. Fielder, “Change of refractive state and eye size in children of birth weight less than 1701 g,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 456–460, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. Cook, S. White, M. Batterbury, and D. Clark, “Ocular growth and refractive error development in premature infants without retinopathy of prematurity,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 953–960, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Cook, S. White, M. Batterbury, and D. Clark, “Ocular growth and refractive error development in premature infants with or without retinopathy of prematurity,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 49, no. 12, pp. 5199–5207, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Snir, R. Friling, D. Weinberger, I. Sherf, and R. Axer-Siegel, “Refraction and keratometry in 40 week old premature (corrected age) and term infants,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 88, no. 7, pp. 900–904, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. S. Baker and W. Tasman, “Myopia in adults with retinopathy of prematurity,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 145, no. 6, pp. 1090–1094, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. Mactier, S. Maroo, M. Bradnam, and R. Hamilton, “Ocular biometry in preterm infants: implications for estimation of retinal illuminance,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 453–457, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. E. Birch and R. Spencer, “Visual outcome in infants with cicatricial retinopathy of prematurity,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 410–415, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. Robinson and M. O'Keefe, “Follow-up study on premature infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 91–94, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. V. Dobson, G. E. Quinn, C. G. Summers et al., “Effect of acute-phase retinopathy of prematurity on grating acuity development in the very low birth weight infant,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 35, no. 13, pp. 4236–4244, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  18. A. R. O'Connor, T. J. Stephenson, A. Johnson et al., “Visual function in low birthweight children,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 88, no. 9, pp. 1149–1153, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. A. Palmer, R. J. Hardy, V. Dobson et al., “15-Year outcomes following threshold retinopathy of prematurity: final results from the Multicenter Trial of Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 311–318, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Spencer, “Long-term visual outcomes in extremely low-birth-weight children (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis),” Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society, vol. 104, pp. 493–516, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. M. Hansen and A. B. Fulton, “Rod-mediated increment threshold functions in infants,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 41, no. 13, pp. 4347–4352, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. M. Hansen and A. B. Fulton, “Background adaptation in children with a history of mild retinopathy of prematurity,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 320–324, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. M. Barnaby, R. M. Hansen, A. Moskowitz, and A. B. Fulton, “Development of scotopic visual thresholds in retinopathy of prematurity,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 4854–4860, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. B. Fulton, X. Reynaud, R. M. Hansen, C. A. Lemere, C. Parker, and T. P. Williams, “Rod photoreceptors in infant rats with a history of oxygen exposure,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 168–174, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. X. Hammer, N. V. Iftimia, R. Daniel Ferguson et al., “Foveal fine structure in retinopathy of prematurity: an adaptive optics fourier domain optical coherence tomography study,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 2061–2070, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. B. Fulton, R. M. Hansen, A. Moskowitz, and J. D. Akula, “The neurovascular retina in retinopathy of prematurity,” Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 452–482, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Moskowitz, R. Hansen, and A. Fulton, “Early ametropia and rod photoreceptor function in retinopathy of prematurity,” Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 307–317, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. T. Pardue, A. E. Faulkner, A. Fernandes et al., “High susceptibility to experimental myopia in a mouse model with a retinal on pathway defect,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 706–712, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. D. Luu, A. H. C. Koh, and Y. Ling, “The ON/OFF-response in retinopathy of prematurity subjects with myopia,” Documenta Ophthalmologica, vol. 110, no. 2-3, pp. 155–161, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. Troilo, “Neonatal eye growth and emmetriopisation—a literature review,” Eye, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 154–160, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Wallman, “Retinal control of eye growth and refraction,” Progress in Retinal Research, vol. 12, pp. 133–153, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. E. L. Smith, C. S. Kee, R. Ramamirtham, Y. Qiao-Grider, and L. F. Hung, “Peripheral vision can influence eye growth and refractive development in infant monkeys,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 46, no. 11, pp. 3965–3972, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. L. Smith, R. Ramamirtham, Y. Qiao-Grider et al., “Effects of foveal ablation on emmetropization and form-deprivation myopia,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 3914–3922, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. O. Mutti, L. T. Sinnott, G. L. Mitchell et al., “Relative peripheral refractive error and the risk of onset and progression of myopia in children,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 199–205, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. G. E. Quinn, V. Dobson, M. X. Repka et al., “Development of myopia in infants with birth weights less than 1251 grams,” Ophthalmology, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 329–340, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  36. G. E. Quinn, V. Dobson, J. Kivlin et al., “Prevalence of myopia between 3 months and 5 1/4 years in preterm infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity,” Ophthalmology, vol. 105, no. 7, pp. 1292–1300, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. S. Cunningham, B. W. Fleck, R. A. Elton, and N. Mclntosh, “Transcutaneous oxygen levels in retinopathy of prematurity,” The Lancet, vol. 346, no. 8988, pp. 1464–1465, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. S. Penn, B. L. Tolman, and L. A. Lowery, “Variable oxygen exposure causes preretinal neovascularization in the newborn rat,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 576–585, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. S. Penn, M. M. Henry, and B. L. Tolman, “Exposure to alternating hypoxia and hyperoxia causes severe proliferative retinopathy in the newborn rat,” Pediatric Research, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 724–731, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. S. Penn, M. M. Henry, P. T. Wall, and B. L. Tolman, “The range of PaO2 variation determines the severity of oxygen-induced retinopathy in newborn rats,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 2063–2070, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. M. Barnett, S. E. Yanni, and J. S. Penn, “The development of the rat model of retinopathy of prematurity,” Documenta Ophthalmologica, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 3–12, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. D. Lepore, F. Molle, M. M. Pagliara et al., “Atlas of fluorescein angiographic findings in eyes undergoing laser for retinopathy of prematurity,” Ophthalmology, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 168–175, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. O. Dembinska, L. M. Rojas, S. Chemtob, and P. Lachapelle, “Evidence for a brief period of enhanced oxygen susceptibility in the rat model of oxygen-induced retinopathy,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 2481–2490, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. K. Liu, J. D. Akula, C. Falk, R. M. Hansen, and A. B. Fulton, “The retinal vasculature and function of the neural retina in a rat model of retinopathy of prematurity,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 2639–2647, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. K. Liu, J. D. Akula, R. M. Hansen, A. Moskowitz, M. S. Kleinman, and A. B. Fulton, “Development of the electroretinographic oscillatory potentials in normal and ROP rate,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 5447–5452, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. D. Akula, R. M. Hansen, M. E. Martinez-Perez, and A. B. Fulton, “Rod photoreceptor function predicts blood vessel abnormality in retinopathy of prematurity,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 4351–4359, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. B. A. Berkowitz, R. Roberts, J. S. Penn, and M. Gradianu, “High-resolution manganese-enhanced MRI of experimental retinopathy of prematurity,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 4733–4740, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. D. Akula, J. A. Mocko, A. Moskowitz, R. M. Hansen, and A. B. Fulton, “The oscillatory potentials of the dark-adapted electroretinogram in retinopathy of prematurity,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 5788–5797, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. Dorfman, O. Dembinska, S. Chemtob, and P. Lachapelle, “Early manifestations of postnatal hyperoxia on the retinal structure and function of the neonatal rat,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 458–466, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. D. Akula, J. A. Mocko, I. Y. Benador et al., “The neurovascular relation in oxygen-induced retinopathy,” Molecular Vision, vol. 14, pp. 2499–2508, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. B. A. Berkowitz and R. Roberts, “Evidence for a critical role of panretinal pathophysiology in experimental ROP,” Documenta Ophthalmologica, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 13–24, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. B. A. Berkowitz et al., “Intraretinal calcium channels and retinal morbidity in experimental retinopathy of prematurity,” Molecular Vision, vol. 17, pp. 2516–2526, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  53. J. D. Akula, T. L. Favazza, J. A. Mocko et al., “The anatomy of the rat eye with oxygen-induced retinopathy,” Documenta Ophthalmologica, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 41–50, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. R. Roberts, W. Zbang, Y. Ito, and B. A. Berkowitz, “Spatial pattern and temporal evolution of retinal oxygenation response in oxygen-induced retinopathy,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 5315–5320, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. W. Zhang, Y. Ito, E. Berlin, R. Roberts, H. Luan, and B. A. Berkowitz, “Specificity of subnormal ΔPO2 for retinal neovascularization in experimental retinopathy of prematurity,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 3551–3555, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. T. L. Terry, “Fibroblastic overgrowth of persistent tunica vasculosa lentis in infants born prematurely: II. Report of cases-clinical aspects,” Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society, vol. 40, pp. 262–284, 1942. View at Google Scholar
  57. Y. Soh, T. Fujino, and Y. Hatsukawa, “Progression and timing of treatment of zone I retinopathy of prematurity,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 146, no. 3, pp. 369–374, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. B. Lorenz, K. Spasovska, H. Elflein, and N. Schneider, “Wide-field digital imaging based telemedicine for screening for acute retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Six-year results of a multicentre field study,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 247, no. 9, pp. 1251–1262, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. B. A. Berkowitz, R. A. Lukaszew, C. M. Mullins, and J. S. Penn, “Impaired hyaloidal circulation function and uncoordinated ocular growth patterns in experimental retinopathy of prematurity,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 391–396, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. Glickstein and M. Millodot, “Retinoscopy and eye size,” Science, vol. 168, no. 3931, pp. 605–606, 1970. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. D. O. Mutti, J. N. Ver Hoeve, K. Zadnik, and C. J. Murphy, “The artifact of retinoscopy revisited: comparison of refractive error measured by retinoscopy and visual evoked potential in the rat,” Optometry and Vision Science, vol. 74, no. 7, pp. 483–488, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. E. G. de la Cera, G. Rodríguez, L. Llorente, F. Schaeffel, and S. Marcos, “Optical aberrations in the mouse eye,” Vision Research, vol. 46, no. 16, pp. 2546–2553, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. A. Hughes, “The artifact of retinoscopy in the rat and rabbit eye has its origin at the retina/vitreous interface rather than in longitudinal chromatic aberration,” Vision Research, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1293–1294, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. A. Hughes, “A schematic eye for the rat,” Vision Research, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 569–588, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. Rymer and C. F. Wildsoet, “The role of the retinal pigment epithelium in eye growth regulation and myopia: a review,” Visual Neuroscience, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 251–261, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. M. E. Hartnett, D. Martiniuk, G. Byfield, P. Geisen, G. Zeng, and V. L. Bautch, “Neutralizing VEGF decreases tortuosity and alters endothelial cell division orientation in arterioles and veins in a rat model of ROP: relevance to plus disease,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3107–3114, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. R. M. Robb, “Increase in retinal surface area during infancy and childhood,” Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 16–20, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. R. Ihaka and R. Gentleman, “R: a language for data analysis and graphics,” Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 299–314, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. P. C. Southall, Mirrors, Prisms and Lenses; a Text-book of Geometrical Optics, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, NY, USA, 1918.
  70. A. B. Fulton and B. N. Baker, “The relation of retinal sensitivity and rhodopsin in developing rat retina,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 647–651, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. R. W. Young, “Cell differentiation in the retina of the mouse,” Anatomical Record, vol. 212, no. 2, pp. 199–205, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. B. Fulton, R. M. Hansen, and O. Findl, “The development of the rod photoresponse from dark-adapted rats,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1038–1045, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. H. Xu and N. Tian, “Pathway-specific maturation, visual deprivation, and development of retinal pathway,” Neuroscientist, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 337–346, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. A. Hughes, “The refractive state of the rat eye,” Vision Research, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 927–939, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. D. Borja et al., “Distortions of the posterior surface in optical coherence tomography images of the isolated crystalline lens: effect of the lens index gradient,” Biomedical Optics Express, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 1331–1340, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  76. G. E. Meyer and M. C. Salinsky, “Refraction of the rat: estimation by pattern evoked visual cortical potentials,” Vision Research, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 883–885, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. J. A. Guggenheim, R. C. Creer, and X. J. Qin, “Postnatal refractive development in the Brown Norway rat: limitations of standard refractive and ocular component dimension measurement techniques,” Current Eye Research, vol. 29, no. 4-5, pp. 369–376, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. D. L. Mayer, R. M. Hansen, B. D. Moore, S. Kim, and A. B. Fulton, “Cycloplegic refractions in healthy children aged 1 through 48 months,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 119, no. 11, pp. 1625–1628, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. D. O. Mutti, K. Zadnik, C. A. Johnson, H. C. Howland, and C. J. Murphy, “Retinoscopic measurement of the refractive state of the rat,” Vision Research, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 583–586, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. M. G. Harris, and S. E. Heyman, “Ocular albinism: a review of the literature,” Optometric Weekly, vol. 64, pp. 31–37, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  81. M. H. Freeman and W. H. A. Fincham, Optics, Butterworths, Boston, Mass, USA, 10th edition, 1990.
  82. Y. Geng et al., “Optical properties of the mouse eye,” Biomedical Optics Express, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 717–738, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  83. J. S. Penn, L. A. Thum, and M. I. Naash, “Oxygen-induced retinopathy in the rat: vitamins C and E as potential therapies,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1836–1845, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. J. S. Penn, B. L. Tolman, L. A. Lowery, and C. A. Koutz, “Oxygen-induced retinopathy in the rat: hemorrhages and dysplasias may lead to retinal detachment,” Current Eye Research, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 939–953, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. G. E. Quinn, V. Dobson, R. M. Siatkowski et al., “Does cryotherapy affect refractive error? Results from treated versus control eyes in the cryotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity trial,” Ophthalmology, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 343–347, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. G. E. Quinn, V. Dobson, B. V. Davitt et al., “Progression of myopia and high myopia in the early treatment for retinopathy of prematurity study: findings to 3 years of age,” Ophthalmology, vol. 115, no. 6, pp. 1058–1064, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. D. K. Wallace, J. A. Kylstra, S. J. Phillips, and J. G. Hall, “Poor postnatal weight gain: a risk factor for severe retinopathy of prematurity,” Journal of AAPOS, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 343–347, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  88. J. B. F. Filho, P. P. Bonomo, M. Maia, and R. S. Procianoy, “Weight gain measured at 6 weeks after birth as a predictor for severe retinopathy of prematurity: study with 317 very low birth weight preterm babies,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 247, no. 6, pp. 831–836, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. J. M. Holmes and L. A. Duffner, “The effect of postnatal growth retardation on abnormal neovascularization in the oxygen exposed neonatal rat,” Current Eye Research, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 403–409, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. A. Stahl, J. Chen, P. Sapieha et al., “Postnatal weight gain modifies severity and functional outcome of oxygen-induced proliferative retinopathy,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 177, no. 6, pp. 2715–2723, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. J. M. Holmes and L. A. Duffner, “The effect of litter size on normal retinal vascular development in the neonatal rat,” Current Eye Research, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 737–740, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. S. G. Crewther, H. Liang, B. M. Junghans, and D. P. Crewther, “Ionic control of ocular growth and refractive change,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 42, pp. 15663–15668, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. B. A. Berkowitz, M. Gradianu, S. Schafer et al., “Ionic dysregulatory phenotyping of pathologic retinal thinning with manganese-enhanced MRI,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 49, no. 7, pp. 3178–3184, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. B. T. Chen, M. V. Avshalumov, and M. E. Rice, “H2O2 is a novel, endogenous modulator of synaptic dopamine release,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 2468–2476, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. T. Fujikado, Y. Kawasaki, J. Fujii et al., “The effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor on form-deprivation myopia,” Current Eye Research, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 992–996, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. T. Fujikado, K. Tsujikawa, M. Tamura, J. Hosohata, Y. Kawasaki, and Y. Tano, “Effect of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor on lens-induced myopia,” Ophthalmic Research, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 75–79, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus