Table 1: Summary of the nonmodifiable and the modifiable risk factors for age-related macular degeneration*.

Nonmodifiable risk factors
 Age
 Gender
 Iris color
 Ethnicity
 Hyperopia
 Nuclear sclerosis
 Family history of AMD
 Complement factor H polymorphism
 HTRA1 polymorphism
 CX3CR1 polymorphism
 Complement factors 2, 3 and B polymorphism
Modifiable risk factors
 Smoking
 Body mass index
 Hypertension
 Diabetes
 Cholesterol
 HDL-cholesterol
 Acute myocardial infarction
 Stroke
 Angina
 High alcohol intake
 Dietary antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids
 Chronic renal failure
 Hormone replacement therapy
 Chlamydia pneumonie infection
 Physical activity
 Sunlight exposure
 Cataract surgery

AMD: age-related macular degeneration; HTRA1: HtrA serine peptidase 1; CX3CR1: CX3C chemokine receptor 1; HDL: high-density lipoprotein.