Table 2: Cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies examining the association between smoking and AMD: current-smokers versus never-smokers*.

StudiesAMD typesOdds ratio (95% CI)*

Beaver Dam Eye StudyEarly AMD  
  
  
Neovascular AMD  
  
  
  
  
    
Ever-smokers versus never-smokers:   
 M 1.29 (0.98–1.70)   
 F 1.02 (0.81–1.29)   
Ever-smokers versus never-smokers:   
 M 2.86 (0.64–12.7)   
 F 2.06 (1.03–4.10)   
Current-smokers versus never-smokers or exsmokers:   
 M 3.29 (1.03–10.50)   
 F 2.50 (1.01–6.20)
Rotterdam Study Atrophic AMD  
   
Neovascular AMD     
RR 1.5 (0.6–3.9), RR** 1.9 (0.7–5.4)   
RR 3.6 (1.8–7.4), RR** 6.6 (2.8–15.9)   
      RR~ 0.5 (0.1–4.5)
Blue Mountains Eye Study Early AMD  
All late AMD  
Atrophic AMD  
Neovascular AMD
1.89 (1.26–2.84)   
4.46 (2.20–9.03)   
4.94 (1.29–8.82)   
3.26 (1.45–7.38)
Visual Impairment ProjectAMD2.38 (0.83–6.80),
Beaver Dam Offspring StudyEarly AMD1.83 (1.06–3.17)
Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS)   
Early AMD  
Atrophic AMD  
Neovascular AMD
Ever-smokers versus never-smokers:   
 1.25 (1.09–1.44),   
 1.61 (1.06–2.42),   
 1.91 (1.57–2.33),
EUREYE Study   
Atrophic AMD  
Neovascular AMD
Smoking in previous 25 years  
 2.27 (1.27–4.05)   
 2.86 (1.69–4.85)
Eye Disease Case-Control Study GroupNeovascular AMD2.20 (1.40–3.50),
POLA StudyLate AMD3.6 (1.0–12.5)
Moon BG, 2012Early AMD1.53 (1.37–1.94),
Cacket P, 2011PCV  
Neovascular AMD
2.8 (1.4–5.5),   
4.3 (2.1–8.5),

Prospective Cohort StudyAMD typesRelative risk (95% CI)*

Physicians’ Health StudyNeovascular AMD2.10 (1.01–4.37),
Nurses’ Health StudyAll AMDCurrent smokers 1.70 (1.20-2.50),  
Women who smoked 25 or more cigarettes per day 2.4 (1.4-4.0),   
Beaver Dam Eye Study, 5 yearsEarly AMD   
   
Progression of AMD  
M 1.53 (0.81–2.99)   
F 0.74 (0.40–1.35)   
M 2.34 (1.00–5.44)   
F 1.00 (0.50–2.01)
Beaver Dam Eye Study, 10 yearsEarly AMD  
Late AMD  
Progression of AMD
1.37 (0.98–1.94)   
0.51 (0.18–1.46)   
1.34 (0.94–1.91)
Blue Mountains Eye Study, 5 yearsGeographic atrophy  
Neovascular AMD  
Any late AMD
3.6 (1.1–11.3)   
1.6 (0.4–3.7)   
2.5 (1.0–6.2)
Blue Mountains Eye Study, 10 yearsGeographic atrophy  
Neovascular AMD  
Any late AMD
10.3 (2.7–39.1)   
1.9 (0.6–5.3)   
3.9 (1.7–8.8)
AREDS followupGeographic atrophy  1.82 (1.25–2.65)   
1.55 (1.15–2.09)
Coleman AL, 2010Early AMD  
Late AMD
OR 1.11 (0.53–1.23)   
OR 1.04 (0.31–3.47)

AMD: age-related macular degeneration; *age and sex adjusted; **less than 85 years; ~more than 85 years; CI: confidence interval; M: male; F: female; RR: relative risk; POLA: Pathologies Oculaires Liées à l'Age; PCV: polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy; OR: odds ratio.