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Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2014, Article ID 236905, 7 pages
Review Article

Sarcoidosis: Sex-Dependent Variations in Presentation and Management

Department of Ophthalmology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 645 North Michigan Avenue, Suite 440, Chicago, IL 60611, USA

Received 3 October 2013; Accepted 19 May 2014; Published 2 June 2014

Academic Editor: Janet L. Davis

Copyright © 2014 Andrea D. Birnbaum and Lana M. Rifkin. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease with a wide range of clinical presentations. The manifestations and prognosis in sarcoidosis are dependent upon not only organ involvement but also age and sex. The purpose of this review is to describe the systemic and ocular manifestations of sarcoidosis with a specific focus on sex-dependent difference in presentation and management. Sarcoidosis is more common in women, particularly in patients who present after age of 50 years. Women with sarcoidosis are more likely to develop cystoid macular edema and the mortality rate is higher than that of men.