Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 769213, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/769213
Review Article

Laser-Based Strategies to Treat Diabetic Macular Edema: History and New Promising Therapies

Department of Ophthalmology, Yeouido St. Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, No. 62 Yeouido-dong, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul 150-713, Republic of Korea

Received 29 May 2014; Revised 30 July 2014; Accepted 4 September 2014; Published 22 September 2014

Academic Editor: Andrew J. Barkmeier

Copyright © 2014 Young Gun Park et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. R. Aroca, M. Salvat, J. Fernández, and I. Méndez, “Risk factors for diffuse and focal macular edema,” Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 211–215, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. F. L. Ferris III and A. Patz, “Macular edema: a major complication of diabetic retinopathy,” Transactions of the New Orleans Academy of Ophthalmology, vol. 31, pp. 307–316, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E. Chen, M. Looman, M. Laouri et al., “Burden of illness of diabetic macular edema: literature review,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1587–1597, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. “Photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study report number 1. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study research group,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 103, no. 12, pp. 1796–1806, 1985.
  5. J. J. Weiter and R. Zuckerman, “The influence of the photoreceptor-RPE complex on the inner retina: an explanation for the beneficial effects of photocoagulation,” Ophthalmology, vol. 87, no. 11, pp. 1133–1139, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. G. H. Bresnick, “Diabetic maculopathy. A critical review highlighting diffuse macular edema,” Ophthalmology, vol. 90, no. 11, pp. 1301–1317, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Q. D. Nguyen, D. M. Brown, D. M. Marcus et al., “Ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema: results from 2 phase iii randomized trials: RISE and RIDE,” Ophthalmology, vol. 119, no. 4, pp. 789–801, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. Rajendram, S. Fraser-Bell, A. Kaines et al., “A2-year prospective randomized controlled trial of intravitreal bevacizumab or laser therapy (BOLT) in the management of diabetic macular edema: 24-month data: report 3,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 130, no. 8, pp. 972–979, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. Bhagat, R. A. Grigorian, A. Tutela, and M. A. Zarbin, “Diabetic macular edema: pathogenesis and treatment,” Survey of Ophthalmology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 1–32, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. O. M. Tso, I. H. L. Wallow, and S. Elgin, “Experimental photocoagulation of the human retina, I. Correlation of physical, clinical, and pathologic data,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 1035–1040, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. J. Apple, M. F. Goldberg, and G. Wyhinny, “Histopathology and ultrastructure of the argon laser lesion in human retinal and choroidal vasculatures,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 595–609, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. J. Wilson, D. Finkelstein, H. A. Quigley, and W. R. Green, “Macular grid photocoagulation. An experimental study on the primate retina,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 100–105, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. Ogata, J. Tombran-Tink, N. Jo, D. Mrazek, and M. Matsumura, “Upregulation of pigment epithelium-derived factor after laser photocoagulation,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 132, no. 3, pp. 427–429, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. N. Ogata, A. Ando, M. Uyama, and M. Matsumura, “Expression of cytokines and transcription factors in photocoagulated human retinal pigment epithelial cells,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 239, no. 2, pp. 87–95, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. G. Striph, W. M. Hart Jr., and R. J. Olk, “Modified grid laser photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema: the effect on the central visual field,” Ophthalmology, vol. 95, no. 12, pp. 1673–1679, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. M. Lee and R. J. Olk, “Modified grid laser photocoagulation for diffuse diabetic macular edema: long-term visual results,” Ophthalmology, vol. 98, no. 10, pp. 1594–1602, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. F. Ferris, “Early photocoagulation in patients with either type I or type II diabetes,” Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society, vol. 94, pp. 505–537, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. Schatz, D. Madeira, H. R. McDonald, and R. N. Johnson, “Progressive enlargement of laser scars following grid laser photocoagulation for diffuse diabetic macular edema,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 109, no. 11, pp. 1549–1551, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. M. Lewen, “Subretinal neovascularization complicating laser photocoagulation of diabetic maculopathy.,” Ophthalmic Surgery, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 734–737, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. R. Guyer, D. J. D'Amico, and C. W. Smith, “Subretinal fibrosis after laser photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema,” American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 113, no. 6, pp. 652–656, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. S. Fong, S. F. Strauber, L. P. Aiello et al., “Comparison of the modified early treatment diabetic retinopathy study and mild macular grid laser photocoagulation strategies for diabetic macular edema,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 125, no. 4, pp. 469–480, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, “A randomized trial comparing intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and focal/grid photocoagulation for diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology, vol. 115, no. 9, pp. 1447–1459.e10, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  23. R. W. Beck, A. R. Edwards, L. P. Aiello et al., “Three-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing focal/grid photocoagulation and intravitreal triamcinolone for diabetic macular edema,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 127, no. 3, pp. 245–251, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. J. Elman, N. M. Bressler, H. Qin et al., “Expanded 2-year follow-up of ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser or triamcinolone plus prompt laser for diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 609–614, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Framme, A. Walter, P. Prahs et al., “Structural changes of the retina after conventional laser photocoagulation and selective retina treatment (SRT) in spectral domain OCT,” Current Eye Research, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 568–579, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. X. Gao and D. Xing, “Molecular mechanisms of cell proliferation induced by low power laser irradiation,” Journal of Biomedical Science, vol. 16, no. 1, article 4, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. Akduman and R. J. Olk, “Subthreshold (invisible) modified grid diode laser photocoagulation in diffuse diabetic macular edema (DDME),” Ophthalmic Surgery and Lasers, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 706–714, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Sivaprasad, M. Elagouz, D. McHugh, O. Shona, and G. Dorin, “Micropulsed diode laser therapy: evolution and clinical applications,” Survey of Ophthalmology, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 516–530, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. K. Luttrull, C. Sramek, D. Palanker, C. J. Spink, and D. C. Musch, “Long-term safety, high-resolution imaging, and tissue temperature modeling of subvisible diode micropulse photocoagulation for retinovascular macular edema,” Retina, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 375–386, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. R. Friberg and E. C. Karatza, “Treatment of macular disease using a micropulsed and continuous wave 810-nm diode laser,” Ophthalmology, vol. 104, no. 12, pp. 2030–2038, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. K. Luttrull, D. C. Musch, and M. A. Mainster, “Subthreshold diode micropulse photocoagulation for the treatment of clinically significant diabetic macular oedema,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 74–80, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. P. Venkatesh, R. Ramanjulu, R. Azad, R. Vohra, and S. Garg, “Subthreshold micropulse diode laser and double frequency neodymium: YAG laser in treatment of diabetic macular edema: a prospective, randomized study using multifocal electroretinography,” Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 727–733, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. Roider, N. A. Michaud, T. J. Flotte, and R. Birngruber, “Response of the retinal pigment epithelium to selective photocoagulation,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 110, no. 12, pp. 1786–1792, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. Roider, F. Hillenkamp, T. Flotte, and R. Birngruber, “Microphotocoagulation: selective effects of repetitive short laser pulses,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 90, no. 18, pp. 8643–8647, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. Brinkmann, J. Roider, and R. Birngruber, “Selective retina therapy (SRT): a review on methods, techniques, preclinical and first clinical results,” Bulletin de la Société Belge d'Ophtalmologie, no. 302, pp. 51–69, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. Brinkmann, G. Huttmann, J. Rogener, J. Roider, R. Birngruber, and C. P. Lin, “Origin of retinal pigment epithelium cell damage by pulsed laser irradiance in the nanosecond to microsecond time regimen,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 451–464, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  37. J. Neumann and R. Brinkmann, “Cell disintegration by laser-induced transient microbubbles and its simultaneous monitoring by interferometry,” Journal of Biomedical Optics, vol. 11, no. 4, Article ID 041112, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. Y. G. Park, E. Seifert, Y. J. Roh et al., “Tissue response of selective retina therapy by means of a feedback-controlled energy ramping mode,” Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. J. Roider, R. Brinkmann, C. Wirbelauer, H. Laqua, and R. Birngruber, “Retinal sparing by selective retinal pigment epithelial photocoagulation,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 117, no. 8, pp. 1028–1034, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. Roider, R. Brinkmann, C. Wirbelauer, H. Laqua, and R. Birngruber, “Subthreshold (retinal pigment epithelium) photocoagulation in macular diseases: a pilot study,” British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 40–47, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. C. Framme, G. Schuele, J. Roider, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Influence of pulse duration and pulse number in selective RPE laser treatment,” Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 206–215, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. Roider, N. Michaud, T. Flotte, and R. Birngruber, “Histology of retinal lesions after continuous irradiation and after selective microcoagulation of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Ophthalmologe, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 274–278, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. Roider, S. H. M. Liew, C. Klatt et al., “Selective retina therapy (SRT) for clinically significant diabetic macular edema,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 248, no. 9, pp. 1263–1272, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. H. Elsner, E. Pörksen, C. Klatt et al., “Selective retina therapy in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 244, no. 12, pp. 1638–1645, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. C. Klatt, H. Elsner, E. Pörksen et al., “Selective retina therapy in central serous chorioretinopathy with detachment of the pigmentary epithelium,” Ophthalmologe, vol. 103, no. 10, pp. 850–855, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Koinzer, H. Elsner, C. Klatt et al., “Selective retina therapy (SRT) of chronic subfoveal fluid after surgery of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: three case reports,” Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 246, no. 10, pp. 1373–1378, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. Q. D. Nguyen, S. M. Shah, A. A. Khwaja et al., “Two-year outcomes of the ranibizumab for edema of the mAcula in diabetes (READ-2) study,” Ophthalmology, vol. 117, no. 11, pp. 2146–2151, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network, M. J. Elman, H. Qin et al., “Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema with prompt versus deferred laser treatment: three-year randomized trial results,” Ophthalmology, vol. 119, no. 11, pp. 2312–2318, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  49. P. Mitchell, F. Bandello, U. Schmidt-Erfurth et al., “The RESTORE study: ranibizumab monotherapy or combined with laser versus laser monotherapy for diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 615–625, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. I. U. Scott, A. R. Edwards, and R. W. Beck, “A phase II randomized clinical trial of intravitreal bevacizumab for diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology, vol. 114, no. 10, pp. 1860–1867, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. D. F. Martin, M. G. Maguire, S. L. Fine et al., “Ranibizumab and bevacizumab for treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration: two-year results,” Ophthalmology, vol. 119, no. 7, pp. 1388–1398, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. D. V. Do, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, V. H. Gonzalez et al., “The da VINCI study: phase 2 primary results of VEGF trap-eye in patients with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology, vol. 118, no. 9, pp. 1819–1826, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. D. V. Do, Q. D. Nguyen, D. Boyer et al., “One-year outcomes of the da VINCI study of VEGF trap-eye in eyes with diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology, vol. 119, no. 8, pp. 1658–1665, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. W. K. Se, H.-S. Sa, Y. C. Hee, and I. K. Jong, “Macular grid photocoagulation after intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for diffuse diabetic macular edema,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 124, no. 5, pp. 653–658, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. J. Elman, L. P. Aiello, R. W. Beck et al., “Randomized trial evaluating ranibizumab plus prompt or deferred laser or triamcinolone plus prompt laser for diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmology, vol. 117, no. 6, pp. 1064.e35–1077.e35, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. Googe, A. J. Brucker, N. M. Bressler et al., “Randomized trial evaluating short-term effects of intravitreal ranibizumab or triamcinolone acetonide on macular edema after focal/grid laser for diabetic macular edema in eyes also receiving panretinal photocoagulation,” Retina, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1009–1027, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. B. D. Kuppermann, M. S. Blumenkranz, J. A. Haller et al., “Randomized controlled study of an intravitreous dexamethasone drug delivery system in patients with persistent macular edema,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 309–317, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. Guigou, C. Hajjar, E. Parrat et al., “Multicenter Ozurdex(R) assessment for diabetic macular edema: MOZART study,” Journal Français d'Ophtalmologie, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 480–485, 2014. View at Google Scholar