Cell Models to Study Regulation of Cell Transformation in Pathologies of Retinal Pigment Epithelium
Non-Smad signaling in response to TGF-β (according to Xu et al. ). (a) Activation of RhoA in response to TGF-β and induction of ubiquitin-mediated RhoA degradation at tight junctions. (b) TGF-β activates p38 MAP kinase and JNK MAP kinase signaling through the activation of TAK1 (TGF-β-activated kinase) by receptor-associated TRAF6, and ERK MAP kinase signaling through recruitment and phosphorylation of Shc by the TβR1 receptor. (c) TGF-β induces PI3-kinase signaling, leading to the activation of AKT-mTOR signaling and consequently to increased translation.