Journal of Ophthalmology / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Graves’ Ophthalmopathy: VISA versus EUGOGO Classification, Assessment, and Management

Table 1

NO SPECS modified classification [22].

ClassGradeSuggestions for grading

0No physical signs or symptoms

IOnly signs

IISoft tissue involvement
0Absent
aMinimal
bModerate
cMarked

IIIProptosis (3 mm or more of normal upper limits with or without symptoms)
0Absent
a3 or 4 mm over upper normal
b5 to 7 mm increase
c8 mm increase

IVExtraocular muscle involvement (usually with diplopia)
0Absent
aLimitation of motion at extremes of gaze
bEvident restriction of motion
cFixation of a globe or globes

VCorneal involvement (primarily due to lagophthalmos)
0Absent
aStippling of cornea
bUlceration
cClouding, necrosis, and perforation

VISight loss (due to optic nerve involvement)
0Absent
aDisc pallor or choking, or visual field defect, vision 20/20–20/60
bThe same, but vision 20/70–20/200
cBlidness, vision less than 20/200

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.