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Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2015, Article ID 326526, 6 pages
Clinical Study

First Attempt to Implement Ophthalmia Neonatorum Prophylaxis in Angola: Microorganisms, Efficacy, and Obstacles

1IONA, Eye Institute, Rua de Olivença, Luanda, Angola
2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Hospital Clinico Universitario, Avenida Ramon y Cajal 3, 47005 Valladolid, Spain
3IOBA, Eye Institute, University of Valladolid, Paseo de Belen 17, 47011 Valladolid, Spain

Received 18 December 2014; Accepted 1 February 2015

Academic Editor: Terri L. Young

Copyright © 2015 Isabel Alexandre et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. To determine the efficacy of povidone-iodine (P-I) prophylaxis for ophthalmia neonatorum (ON) in Angola and to document maternal prevalence and mother-to-child transmission rates. Methods. Endocervical samples from mothers and newborn conjunctival smears were analysed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG). Newborns were randomized into a noninterventional group and an interventional group that received a drop of P-I 2.5% bilaterally after conjunctival smear collection. Mothers were trained to identify signs of ON and attend a follow-up visit. Results. Forty-two newborns had ocular pathology, and 11 (4.4%) had clinical signs of ON at the time of delivery. Maternal PCR was positive for MG , CT , and NG . Six newborns were positive for CT , MG , and NG . Mother-to-child transmission rates were 50% for CT and NG and 10.5% for MG. Only 16 newborns returned for follow-up. Conclusions. Lack of maternal compliance prevented successful testing of prophylactic P-I efficacy in ON prevention. Nevertheless, we documented the prevalence and mother-to-child transmission rates for CT, NG, and MG. These results emphasize the need to develop an effective Angolan educational and prophylactic ON program.