Table 1: Characteristics of included trials.

Study DesignYearEthnicityFollow-up (years)Measurements of ALTreatment groupControl group
TypeSubjectsAgeInitial SERInitial AL TypeSubjectsAgeInitial SER Initial AL
()(years)(D)(mm)()(years)(D)(mm)

Cho et al. [16]CT
(Nested)
2005Chinese2A-ScanOk439.57 ± 1.46−2.27 ± 1.0924.50 ± 0.71SV359.58 ± 0.69−2.55 ± 0.9824.64 ± 0.58

Walline et al. [17]CT
(Nested)
2009Caucasian2A-ScanOk4010.5 ± 1.1NR24.30 ± 0.73SC2810.5 ± 1.0NR24.20 ± 0.63

Kakita et al. [18]CT
(Prospective)
2011Japanese2IOLMasterOk9012.0 ± 2.6−2.55 ± 1.8224.66 ± 1.11SV12011.9 ± 2.1−2.59 ± 1.6624.79 ± 0.80

Cho and Cheung [19]RCT
(Prospective)
2012Chinese2IOLMasterOk519.23 ± 1.06−2.05 ± 0.7224.48 ± 0.71SV519.39 ± 1.00−2.23 ± 0.8424.40 ± 0.84

Hiraoka et al. [20]CT
(Prospective)
2012Japanese5IOLMasterOk5810.04 ± 1.43−1.89 ± 0.8224.09 ± 0.77SV609.95 ± 1.59−1.83 ± 1.0624.22 ± 0.71

Santodomingo-Rubido  et  al. [21, 24]CT
(Prospective)
2012Caucasian2IOLMasterOk319.6 ± 1.6−2.20 ± 1.0924.49 ± 0.78SV309.9 ± 1.9−2.35 ± 1.1724.26 ± 1.01

Charm and Cho [22]RCT
(Prospective)
2013Chinese2IOLMasterPRok2610−6.4126.02 ± 0.57SV2610−6.2225.93 ± 0.54

Chen et al. [23]CT
(Prospective)
2013Chinese2IOLMasterTok439.4 ± 1.4−2.46 ± 1.3224.37 ± 0.88SV378.9 ± 1.6−2.04 ± 1.0924.18 ± 1.00

RCT = randomized controlled trial; CT = cohort trial; SER = spherical equivalent refraction; AL = axial length; Ok = orthokeratology contact lenses; PRok = partial reduction orthokeratology; Tok = toric orthokeratology; SV = single vision spectacles; SC = soft contact lenses; NR = not report.