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Journal of Ophthalmology
Volume 2016, Article ID 5356371, 6 pages
Research Article

Ocular Biocompatibility of Poly-N-Isopropylacrylamide (pNIPAM)

1Doheny Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA, USA
2Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil
3Federal University of Espírito Santo (UFES), Vitória, Brazil

Received 26 June 2016; Accepted 26 September 2016

Academic Editor: Suphi Taneri

Copyright © 2016 Luiz H. Lima et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. To study the safety of intravitreal injections of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (pNIPAM) tissue adhesive in rabbit eyes. Methods. Twelve study rabbits received an intravitreal injection of 0.1 mL 50% pNIPAM in the right eye. Follow-up examinations included color fundus photography, fundus fluorescein angiography (FA), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and electroretinography (ERG). Subsequent to the last follow-up assessment, the rabbits were sacrificed and histopathological study on the scleral incision sites was performed. Results. All study animals developed mild to moderate levels of inflammatory reaction in the conjunctiva, anterior chamber, and the anterior vitreous during the first month of follow-up. After this period, the level of the inflammatory reaction progressively decreased and completely disappeared after the third month of follow-up. The lens and cornea remained clear during the entire follow-up period. OCT and FA did not show areas of retinal damage or neovascularization. Histological and ERG studies of eyes injected with pNIPAM demonstrated absence of retinal toxicity. Conclusion. Intravitreal injections of pNIPAM were nontoxic in this animal study, and pNIPAM may be safe to be used as a bioadhesive in certain retinal diseases.