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Figure 3: Effects of lutein and hyperosmotic medium on various signal pathways levels of cultured CE cells. Cells were cultured with isoosmotic medium (0) or hyperosmotic medium (H) at 450 mOsM with or without lutein at 10 μM (L). Cells were collected and the levels of phosphorylated- (p-) JNK (a), p-p38 (b), and p-ERK (c) in cell lysates and NF-κB in cell nuclear extracts (d) were measured using relevant ELISA kits, respectively. Hyperosmoticity caused a significant increase of p-p38, p-JNK, and NF-κB levels () but not p-ERK levels. Lutein did not affect any pathways levels in cells cultured with isoosmotic medium. In cells cultured with hyperosmotic medium, lutein significantly reduced p-p38, p-JNK, and NF-κB levels () but not p-ERK1/2 levels as compared to cells cultured with hyperosmotic medium but without lutein.